American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: December 2006 - Volume 14 - Issue 12 - pp 1032-1040
Wilkins, Consuelo H. M.D.; Sheline, Yvette I. M.D.; Roe, Catherine M. Ph.D.; Birge, Stanley J. M.D.; Morris, John C. M.D.
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in older adults and has been implicated in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. This study examined the relationship among vitamin D status, cognitive performance, mood, and physical performance in older adults.
Methods: A cross-sectional group of 80 participants, 40 with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and 40 nondemented persons, were selected from a longitudinal study of memory and aging. Cognitive function was assessed using the Short Blessed Test (SBT), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR; a higher Sum of Boxes score indicates greater dementia severity), and a factor score from a neuropsychometric battery; mood was assessed using clinician's diagnosis and the depression symptoms inventory. The Physical Performance Test (PPT) was used to measure functional status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured for all participants.
Results: The mean vitamin D level in the total sample was 18.58 ng/mL (standard deviation: 7.59); 58% of the participants had abnormally low vitamin D levels defined as less than 20 ng/mL. After adjusting for age, race, gender, and season of vitamin D determination, vitamin D deficiency was associated with presence of an active mood disorder (odds ratio: 11.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.04-66.86; Wald ?2 = 7.66, df = 2, p = 0.022). Using the same covariates in a linear regression model, vitamin D deficiency was associated with worse performance on the SBT (F = 5.22, df = [2, 77], p = 0.044) and higher CDR Sum of Box scores (F = 3.20, df = [2, 77], p = 0.047) in the vitamin D-deficient group.
There was no difference in performance on the MMSE, PPT, or factor scores between the vitamin D groups.
Conclusions: In a cross-section of older adults, vitamin D deficiency was associated with low mood and with impairment on two of four measures of cognitive performance.
Copyright © 2006 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
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- Sufficient = 26 ng average
- Insufficient = 15 ng average
- Deficient = 8 nanograms average
Wide range: 2 ==> 11.7 ==> 66
No change between the groups in the Mini-Mental State Exam - wonder why
CLICK HERE to see the papers which cited the above article
10 papers of Nov 2011 which include
- Serum vitamin D concentrations are related to depression in young adult US population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
- Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role of the non-bone effects.
- Vitamin D and depression: where is all the sunshine?
- Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and depressive symptoms in older women and men.
- - - - - - - - - - - -subsequent papers by Wilkins - - - - - - - - - - -
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with worse cognitive performance and lower bone density in older African Americans.
J Natl Med Assoc. 2009 Apr;101(4):349-54.
Wilkins CH, Birge SJ, Sheline YI, Morris JC.
Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. cwilkins at wustl.edu
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in older adults and is more prevalent among persons with darker pigmented skin. The detrimental effects of vitamin D deficiency on the bone are widely known; however, recent data suggest that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to other disorders, including low mood, cognitive impairment, and impaired mobility.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether nonskeletal diseases such as depression, cognitive impairment, and physical disability, which have been associated with vitamin D deficiency, are more commonly seen in older African Americans.
DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study of 60 older adults (30 African Americans and 30 European Americans), vitamin D status, cognitive performance, physical performance, and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed. Differences between groups and differences between those with vitamin D deficiency and those with normal vitamin D levels were tested.
RESULTS: African Americans had a lower mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (17.98 ng/ml; SD, 6.9) compared to European Americans (25.20 ng/ml; SD, 7.0; p < .0001). Participants with vitamin D deficiency performed worse on a measure of cognitive performance, the Short Blessed Test (10.87 vs 6.31; p = .016); the Physical Performance Test (PPT) (27.00 vs 28.96; p = .039); and had lower BMD (0.823 vs 0.914; p = .005) and t scores (-1.29 vs -0.72; p = .008) of the hip. Among African Americans, vitamin D deficiency was associated with worse cognitive performance and lower BMD of the hip.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency in older African Americans was associated with worse cognitive performance and lower BMD of the hip.
PMID: 19397226 full text online
Clin Interv Aging. 2007;2(3):389-94.
Wilkins CH. full text online
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- Overview Cognition and vitamin D
- Risk of cognitive decline 50 percent higher if <15 ng vitamin D – Aug 2011
- Vitamin D and dementia - 2010 a file, not a web page
- Cognition and vitamin D - Review 2009.PDF a file, not a web page
- Hypothesis - Vitamin D reduce risk of Dementia - 2009 by Grant - a file, not a web page
- Is there evidence for vitamin D and Cognition - 2010
- Vitamin D might might reduce dementia – Mar 2011
- Elderly with more than 257 IU vitamin D daily had less cognitive impairment – Nov 2010
- Overview of Seniors and Vitamin D
- Elderly often trapped in vitamin D vicious circles
- Do Vitamin D Deficiency and Cognitive Decline Go Hand-in-Hand? – Jan 2010
- Cognitive impairment 4X more likely when vitamin D less than 10 ng – Nov 2010
- Vitamin D less than 10ng associated with cognitive decline – July 2010
- Risk of cognitive decline 50 percent higher if low amount of vitamin D – Aug 2011
- Vitamin D and Risk of Cognitive Decline in Elderly Persons – June 2011
- Link between diabetes and Alzheimers is probably low vitamin D
- Influence diagram for vitamin D and cognition - 2008