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Mood disorders 11X worse for older adults with low vitamin D – 2006

Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Low Mood and Worse Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: December 2006 - Volume 14 - Issue 12 - pp 1032-1040
Wilkins, Consuelo H. M.D.; Sheline, Yvette I. M.D.; Roe, Catherine M. Ph.D.; Birge, Stanley J. M.D.; Morris, John C. M.D.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in older adults and has been implicated in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. This study examined the relationship among vitamin D status, cognitive performance, mood, and physical performance in older adults.

Methods: A cross-sectional group of 80 participants, 40 with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and 40 nondemented persons, were selected from a longitudinal study of memory and aging. Cognitive function was assessed using the Short Blessed Test (SBT), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR; a higher Sum of Boxes score indicates greater dementia severity), and a factor score from a neuropsychometric battery; mood was assessed using clinician's diagnosis and the depression symptoms inventory. The Physical Performance Test (PPT) was used to measure functional status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured for all participants.

Results: The mean vitamin D level in the total sample was 18.58 ng/mL (standard deviation: 7.59); 58% of the participants had abnormally low vitamin D levels defined as less than 20 ng/mL. After adjusting for age, race, gender, and season of vitamin D determination, vitamin D deficiency was associated with presence of an active mood disorder (odds ratio: 11.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.04-66.86; Wald ?2 = 7.66, df = 2, p = 0.022). Using the same covariates in a linear regression model, vitamin D deficiency was associated with worse performance on the SBT (F = 5.22, df = [2, 77], p = 0.044) and higher CDR Sum of Box scores (F = 3.20, df = [2, 77], p = 0.047) in the vitamin D-deficient group.
There was no difference in performance on the MMSE, PPT, or factor scores between the vitamin D groups.

Conclusions: In a cross-section of older adults, vitamin D deficiency was associated with low mood and with impairment on two of four measures of cognitive performance.

Copyright © 2006 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

PDF is attached at bottom of this page

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Senior citizens (average age 74) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups

  • Sufficient = 26 ng average
  • Insufficient = 15 ng average
  • Deficient = 8 nanograms average

11.7 X more Mood disorders in the Deficient (8 ng) than the Sufficient (26 ng) group

Wide range: 2 ==> 11.7 ==> 66
No change between the groups in the Mini-Mental State Exam - wonder why

CLICK HERE to see the papers which cited the above article

10 papers of Nov 2011 which include

  • Serum vitamin D concentrations are related to depression in young adult US population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
  • Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role of the non-bone effects.
  • Vitamin D and depression: where is all the sunshine?
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and depressive symptoms in older women and men.


- - - - - - - - - - - -subsequent papers by Wilkins - - - - - - - - - - -

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with worse cognitive performance and lower bone density in older African Americans.

J Natl Med Assoc. 2009 Apr;101(4):349-54.
Wilkins CH, Birge SJ, Sheline YI, Morris JC.
Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. cwilkins at wustl.edu

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in older adults and is more prevalent among persons with darker pigmented skin. The detrimental effects of vitamin D deficiency on the bone are widely known; however, recent data suggest that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to other disorders, including low mood, cognitive impairment, and impaired mobility.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether nonskeletal diseases such as depression, cognitive impairment, and physical disability, which have been associated with vitamin D deficiency, are more commonly seen in older African Americans.

DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study of 60 older adults (30 African Americans and 30 European Americans), vitamin D status, cognitive performance, physical performance, and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed. Differences between groups and differences between those with vitamin D deficiency and those with normal vitamin D levels were tested.

RESULTS: African Americans had a lower mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (17.98 ng/ml; SD, 6.9) compared to European Americans (25.20 ng/ml; SD, 7.0; p < .0001). Participants with vitamin D deficiency performed worse on a measure of cognitive performance, the Short Blessed Test (10.87 vs 6.31; p = .016); the Physical Performance Test (PPT) (27.00 vs 28.96; p = .039); and had lower BMD (0.823 vs 0.914; p = .005) and t scores (-1.29 vs -0.72; p = .008) of the hip. Among African Americans, vitamin D deficiency was associated with worse cognitive performance and lower BMD of the hip.

CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency in older African Americans was associated with worse cognitive performance and lower BMD of the hip.
PMID: 19397226 full text online

Osteoporosis screening and risk management.

Clin Interv Aging. 2007;2(3):389-94.
Wilkins CH. full text online

See also VitaminDWiki

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
868 Wilkins 2006.pdf PDF admin 06 Nov, 2011 14:08 95.04 Kb 745
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