The combination of vitamin D deficiency and overweight affects muscle mass and function in older post-menopausal women.
Aging Clin Exp Res. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s40520-018-0921-1. [Epub ahead of print]
Gimigliano F1, Moretti A2, de Sire A2, Calafiore D2, Iolascon G3.
- 1 Department of Mental and Physical Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.
- 2 Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Dentistry, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via De Crecchio, 4, 80138, Naples, Italy.
- 3 Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Dentistry, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via De Crecchio, 4, 80138, Naples, Italy. giovanni.iolascon at gmail.com.
Note: Women with low vitamin D but with normal weight were 7.3 X likly to be weak
- Overweight and elderly both sunbathe less - 2009
- Sarcopenia (muscle loss) fought by Vitamin D, exercise and protein - many studies
- Low Vitamin D breaks down muscle by interferring with protein - Editorial Nov 2013
- Vitamin D increased muscle strength by 1% to 19% (varied with dose and duration) – review June 2016
- Muscle cells differentiate into fat cells if there is low vitamin D in petrie dish – April 2013
- Muscle strength of senior women increased 25 percent with vitamin D, decreased 6 percent with placebo – Oct 2016
Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains the following summary
- FACT: People who are obese have less vitamin D in their blood
- FACT: Obese need a higher dose of vitamin D to get to the same level of vit D
- FACT: When obese people lose weight the vitamin D level in their blood increases
- FACT: Adding Calcium, perhaps in the form of fortified milk, often reduces weight
- FACT: 168 trials for vitamin D intervention of obesity as of Dec 2021
- FACT: Less weight gain by senior women with > 30 ng of vitamin D
- FACT: Dieters lost additional 5 lbs if vitamin D supplementation got them above 32 ng - RCT
- FACT: Obese lost 3X more weight by adding $10 of Vitamin D
- FACT: Those with darker skins were more likely to be obese Sept 2014
- OBSERVATION: Low Vitamin D while pregnancy ==> more obese child and adult
- OBSERVATION: Many mammals had evolved to add fat and vitamin D in the autumn
- and lose both in the Spring - unfortunately humans have forgotten to lose the fat in the Spring
- SUGGESTION: Probably need more than 4,000 IU to lose weight if very low on vitamin D due to
risk factors such as overweight, age, dark skin, live far from equator,shut-in, etc.
- Obesity category has
- Normal weight Obese (50 ng = 125 nanomole)
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that overweight and obese individuals have an increased risk to develop vitamin D deficiency, commonly associated with poor muscle performance. The relationship among fat mass, vitamin D status, and skeletal muscle is still debated.
AIMS: To evaluate the effects of the combination of hypovitaminosis D and overweight on muscle mass and strength, and physical performance in post-menopausal women.
In this cross-sectional study, we recruited post-menopausal women referring to a physiatric outpatient service for the management of osteoporosis over a 36-month period. We compared four groups:
- (1) normal weight with hypovitaminosis D;
- (2) overweight with normal serum 25(OH)D3;
- (3) overweight with hypovitaminosis D; and
- (4) normal weight with normal serum 25(OH)D3 (control group).
Outcome measures were: appendicular lean mass-to-BMI ratio; hand grip strength; and short physical performance battery.
We analysed 368 women (mean aged 67.2 ± 7.8 years): 95 normal weight with hypovitaminosis D, 90 overweight with normal levels of 25(OH)D3, 96 overweight with hypovitaminosis D, and 87 normal weight with normal levels of 25(OH)D3. Overweight women with hypovitaminosis D had a significant risk of reduced muscle mass (OR 5.70; p < 0.001), strength (OR 12.05; p < 0.001), and performance (OR 5.84; p < 0.001) compared to controls. Normal weight women with hypovitaminosis D had only a greater risk of an impairment of muscle strength (OR 7.30; p < 0.001) and performance (OR 3.16; p < 0.001).
According to our findings, both hypovitaminosis D and overweight should be investigated in post-menopausal women because of their negative effects on skeletal muscle mass and function.
This study demonstrated that hypovitaminosis D is associated to impaired muscle function and its combination with overweight might lead also to muscle wasting in a cohort of post-menopausal women.
PMID: 29488185 DOI: 10.1007/s40520-018-0921-1 PDF was available on Sci-Hub March 2018
Review of this study at Vitamin D Council March 2018Overweight senior women with low vitamin D were 12X more likely to be weak – Feb 2018
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