The combination of vitamin D deficiency and overweight affects muscle mass and function in older post-menopausal women.
Aging Clin Exp Res. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s40520-018-0921-1. [Epub ahead of print]
Gimigliano F1, Moretti A2, de Sire A2, Calafiore D2, Iolascon G3.
- 1 Department of Mental and Physical Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.
- 2 Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Dentistry, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via De Crecchio, 4, 80138, Naples, Italy.
- 3 Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Dentistry, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via De Crecchio, 4, 80138, Naples, Italy. giovanni.iolascon at gmail.com.
Note: Women with low vitamin D but with normal weight were 7.3 X likly to be weak
- Overweight and elderly both sunbathe less - 2009
- Sarcopenia (muscle loss) and Vitamin D
- Low Vitamin D breaks down muscle by interferring with protein - Editorial Nov 2013
- Vitamin D increased muscle strength by 1% to 19% (varied with dose and duration) – review June 2016
- Muscle cells differentiate into fat cells if there is low vitamin D in petrie dish – April 2013
- Muscle strength of senior women increased 25 percent with vitamin D, decreased 6 percent with placebo – Oct 2016
Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains the following summary
Calcium supplementation over four years has a beneficial effect on body composition in postmenopausal women - 2007
placebo controlled, double-blind, 4-year longitudinal clinical trial with 1100+ women PDF
BMI increase 1980-2008 (nothing about vitamin D) - 2015
Washington Post interactive graphic Aug 2015
Black line = US BMI increase
From 1980 to 2008, the average BMI for men rose in all but eight countries; the average for women rose in all but 19. Globally, nearly 10 percent of men and nearly 14 percent of women are obese, meaning their BMI is 30 or more. In some countries, particularly in the Pacific Islands, obese is average. Countries with a high average BMI tend to have high rates of diabetes, and vice versa.
- Diabetes 32X more likely if obese and vitamin D deficient – July 2012
Based on NHANES data of 5800 people
Obese & high level of vitamin D: 20X more likely to have diabetes than the study population
from Graphs.net - no reference is given for the data
One in Five American Deaths Associated with Obesity in 2006 Mercola, Dec 2013
2006 study with BMI > 25; Percent of Deaths associated with being overweight
Black women: 27 % White women: 22 % White men: 16 % Black men: 5 %
Vitamin D along with Vitamin K are listed as possible solutions for reducing weight
Should we stop calling obesity a disease? Cracking Health Care Costs, Feb 2014
The ‘disease’ designation becomes a prescription for inaction,’ from US News Magazine story on the AMA announcement
BMI - what is wrong with it NY Times - April 2014
Invented in early 1800's
Never meant to be a measure for individuals
Currently 18.5 = underweight; 18.5 and 24.9 = normal; 25 to 29.9 = overweight; >30 = obese.
Grade 1 =30 - 34.9; Grade 2= 35 - 39.9; Grade 3 > 40
At best, though, B.M.I. is a crude measure that actually misses more than half of people with excess body fat,
It measures total body weight, not just fat. When Arnold Schwarzenegger was Mr. Universe, his B.M.I. was well in the obese range
Article mentions, and appears use the contents of a new book The Obesity Paradox: When Thinner Means Sicker and Heavier Means Healthier Amaxon March 2014
2014 PDF attached at the bottom of this page
Author has written many excellent Vitmin D items
Vitamin D: what clinicians need to know - Aug 2012
Vitamin D: Everything You Need to Know - book Aug 2012
Obesity costs the global economy as much as war and terrorism, totalling $2 TRILLION each year Nov 2014
- $2,000,000,000,000 per year in 2030
- A report commissioned by McKinsey&Company, which studied 44 different ways of combating obesity
- No country in the world reduced its obesity prevalence between 2000 and 2013.
Details on VitaminDWiki at Obesity analysis by McKinsey (Excellent - even though no vitamin D) - Nov 2014
which has an excellent table of cost-effectiveness and proof of ways to reduce obesity
First discovered in 2007. Confirmed many times since then.
Each copy of the FTO variant adds 3.5 pounds. 2 copies ==> 7.0 lbs
So, they think that environment (exercise) turns on/off genetics
Addional possibilites include:
- decreased Vitamin D,
- decreased Magnesium,
- Increased antibiotics - which started just after WWII
- Vitamin D status is a determinant of skeletal muscle mass in obesity according to body fat June 2015
Those with high BMI but with more skeletal muscle mass had higher levels of vitamin D
Publisher wants $32 for the PDF
Seems that most problems are also associated with low vitamin D
http://www.helpguide.org/harvard/how-excess-weight-affects-your-health.htm does not mention vitamin D
- Vitalady FAQ snips
"What is available out there for those of us who can’t take a vitamin ‘pill’ because it seems to get stuck in our pouch?"
"Since A, D & E are fat solubles and we are now malabsorbing fats ‘n oils to a degree, it would do us no good to take these in soft-gel (oil filled) forms. They need to be taken in DRY form."
nothing about Vitamin D
Obesity is three times as deadly for men than women Telegraph July 2016
Compared to healthy size
- Obese people will die 3 years sooner
- Overweight people will die 1 year sooner
Death of men before age 70
20% if healthy weight
33% if moderately obese
80% of morbidly obese.
8 of the top 10 obese countries are Muslim From WikiIslam, the online resource on Islam - 2017
More Than 10 % of World’s Population Is Obese (195 countries)
The word VITAMIN does not occur once in the study
No such attachment on this page
- Hertfordshire, which has population of more than 1.1. million.
- The time frame for improving health is set at nine months for the obese in particular; those with a body mass index over 40 must reduce the number by 15% over that time period, and those with a BMI over 30 are given a target of 10%.
- The target for smokers is eight weeks or more without a cigarette — with a breath test to prove it.
Change in Percentages of Adults With Overweight or Obesity Trying to Lose Weight, 1988-2014 - JAMA March 2017
|Obese/Overweight||53 %||62%||66 %|
|Try to reduce||56 %||47%||49%|
Has details by male/female, race (Nothing about Vitamin D)
No such attachment on this page
The Importance of Body Weight for the Dose Response Relationship of Oral Vitamin D Supplementation and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Healthy Volunteers
PLOS ONE, Published: November 05, 2014DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111265
John Paul Ekwaru, Jennifer D. Zwicker, Michael F. Holick, Edward Giovannucci, Paul J. Veugelers
We analyzed 22,214 recordings of vitamin D supplement use and serum 25(OH)D from 17,614 healthy adult volunteers participating in a preventive health program. This program encourages the use of vitamin D supplementation and monitors its use and serum 25(OH)D and serum calcium levels. Participants reported vitamin D supplementation ranging from 0 to 55,000 IU per day and had serum 25(OH)D levels ranging from 10.1 to 394 nmol/L. The dose response relationship between vitamin D supplementation and serum 25(OH)D followed an exponential curve.
Obese need more Vitamin D: Volume dilution, IU per pound, or BMI – RCT Dec 2012 has the following chart
English BMI Formula
BMI = ( Weight in Pounds / ( Height in inches x Height in inches ) ) x 703
Metric BMI Formula
BMI = ( Weight in Kilograms / ( Height in Meters x Height in Meters ) )
short url = is.gd/VDWObese
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that overweight and obese individuals have an increased risk to develop vitamin D deficiency, commonly associated with poor muscle performance. The relationship among fat mass, vitamin D status, and skeletal muscle is still debated.
AIMS: To evaluate the effects of the combination of hypovitaminosis D and overweight on muscle mass and strength, and physical performance in post-menopausal women.
In this cross-sectional study, we recruited post-menopausal women referring to a physiatric outpatient service for the management of osteoporosis over a 36-month period. We compared four groups:
- (1) normal weight with hypovitaminosis D;
- (2) overweight with normal serum 25(OH)D3;
- (3) overweight with hypovitaminosis D; and
- (4) normal weight with normal serum 25(OH)D3 (control group).
Outcome measures were: appendicular lean mass-to-BMI ratio; hand grip strength; and short physical performance battery.
We analysed 368 women (mean aged 67.2 ± 7.8 years): 95 normal weight with hypovitaminosis D, 90 overweight with normal levels of 25(OH)D3, 96 overweight with hypovitaminosis D, and 87 normal weight with normal levels of 25(OH)D3. Overweight women with hypovitaminosis D had a significant risk of reduced muscle mass (OR 5.70; p < 0.001), strength (OR 12.05; p < 0.001), and performance (OR 5.84; p < 0.001) compared to controls. Normal weight women with hypovitaminosis D had only a greater risk of an impairment of muscle strength (OR 7.30; p < 0.001) and performance (OR 3.16; p < 0.001).
According to our findings, both hypovitaminosis D and overweight should be investigated in post-menopausal women because of their negative effects on skeletal muscle mass and function.
This study demonstrated that hypovitaminosis D is associated to impaired muscle function and its combination with overweight might lead also to muscle wasting in a cohort of post-menopausal women.
PMID: 29488185 DOI: 10.1007/s40520-018-0921-1 PDF was available on Sci-Hub March 2018
Review of this study at Vitamin D Council March 2018