Effects of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials.
Eur J Nutr. 2016 Feb 5. [Epub ahead of print]
Hussin AM1,2, Ashor AW1,3, Schoenmakers I4, Hill T5, Mathers JC1, Siervo M6,7.
1Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE4 5PL, UK.
2Institute of Medical Science Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
3College of Medicine, University of Al-Mustansiriyah, Baghdad, Iraq.
4Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, MRC Human Nutrition Research, 120 Fulbourn Road, Cambridge, CB1 9NL, UK.
5School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
6Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE4 5PL, UK. mario.siervo at ncl.ac.uk.
7Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, MRC Human Nutrition Research, 120 Fulbourn Road, Cambridge, CB1 9NL, UK. mario.siervo at ncl.ac.uk.
In addition to regulating calcium homoeostasis and bone health, vitamin D influences vascular and metabolic processes including endothelial function (EF) and insulin signalling. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were conducted to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on EF and to examine whether the effect size was modified by health status, study duration, dose, route of vitamin D administration, vitamin D status (baseline and post-intervention), body mass index (BMI), age and type of vitamin D.
We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases from inception until March 2015 for studies meeting the following criteria: (1) RCT with adult participants, (2) vitamin D administration alone, (3) studies that quantified EF using commonly applied methods including ultrasound, plethysmography, applanation tonometry and laser Doppler.
Sixteen articles reporting data for 1177 participants were included. Study duration ranged from 4 to 52 weeks. The effect of vitamin D on EF was not significant (SMD: 0.08, 95 % CI -0.06, 0.22, p = 0.28). Subgroup analysis showed a significant improvement of EF in diabetic subjects (SMD: 0.31, 95 % CI 0.05, 0.57, p = 0.02). A non-significant trend was found for diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.02; p = 0.07) and BMI (β = 0.05; p = 0.06).
Vitamin D supplementation did not improve EF. The significant effect of vitamin D in diabetics and a tendency for an association with BMI may indicate a role of excess adiposity and insulin resistance in modulating the effects of vitamin D on vascular function. This remains to be tested in future studies.
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