Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study on Serum Vitamin D and Its Interplay With Glucose Homeostasis in Dutch Older Adults
Journal of Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2015.02.013
Elska M. Brouwer-Brolsma, PhDcorrespondenceemail, Rosalie A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten, PhD, Janneke P. van Wijngaarden, PhD, Nikita L. van de Zwaluw, PhD, Paulette H. in 't Veld, MSc, Sophie Wins, MSc, Karin M.A. Swart, MSc, Anke W. Enneman, PhD, Annelies C. Ham, MSc, Suzanne C. van Dijk, MD, Natasja M. van Schoor, PhD, Nathalie van der Velde, PhD, Andre G. Uitterlinden, PhD, Paul Lips, PhD, Roy P.C. Kessels, PhD, Wilma T. Steegenga, PhD, Edith J.M. Feskens, PhD, Lisette C.P.G.M. de Groot, PhD
First, the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and cognitive performance was examined. Second, we assessed whether there was evidence for an interplay between 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Associations were studied using cross-sectional data of 776 (3 domains) up to 2722 (1 domain) Dutch community-dwelling older adults, aged 65 years or older.
Serum 25(OH)D, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations were obtained. Cognitive performance was assessed with an extensive cognitive test battery. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated to quantify the association between 25(OH)D and cognition; poor performance was defined as the worst 10% of the distribution of the cognitive scores.
The overall median MMSE score was 29 (IQR 28–30). Higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with better attention and working memory, PR 0.50 (95% CI 0.29–0.84) for the third serum 25(OH)D tertile, indicating a 50% lower probability of being a poor performer than participants in the lowest tertile. Beneficial trends were shown for 25(OH)D with executive function and episodic memory. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with plasma glucose or insulin. Plasma insulin only modified the association between serum 25(OH)D and executive function (P for interaction: .001), suggesting that the improvement in executive function with high 25(OH)D concentrations is stronger in participants with high plasma insulin concentrations compared with those with low plasma insulin concentrations.
Higher 25(OH)D concentrations significantly associated with better attention and working memory performance. This study does not demonstrate an interplay between serum 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance.
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See also VitaminDWiki
- Cognition and vitamin D – summary of expert opinions – July 2014
- Vitamin D reduces Alzheimer’s disease in at least 11 ways – Jan 2013
- Cognitive Impairment 2.4X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis July 2012
- Overview Alzheimer's-Cognition and Vitamin D has the following summary
- FACT: Cognitive decline is 19X more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Dementia is associated with low vitamin D levels.
- FACT: Alzheimer’s Dementia 2.3X more likely in elderly if low vitamin D – Dec 2022
- FACT: Dementia is associated with low vitamin D - many studies
- FACT: [https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/what-is-alzheimers/causes-and-risk-factors/genetics|<1% of Alzheimers is due to poor genetics]
- FACT: Alzheimer's Disease is 4X less likely if high vitamin D
- FACT: Every single risk factor listed for Alzheimer's Disease is also a risk factor for low vitamin D levels
- FACT: Elderly cognition gets worse as the elderly vitamin D levels get even lower (while in senior homes)
- OBSERVATION: Reports of increased vitamin D levels result in improved cognition
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s patients 3X more likely to have a malfunctioning vitamin D receptor gene – 2012
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer's Disease has been seen to halt when vitamin D was added.
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s is associated with all 7 of the genes which restrict vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: 39 vitamin D and Alz. or Cognition intervention trials as of Sept 2018
- OBSERVATION: 2 Meta-analysis in 2012 agreed that Alzheimer's Disease. associated with low vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: 50X increase in Alzheimer's while decrease in vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Vitamin D reduces Alzheimer’s disease in 11 ways
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s cognition improved by 4,000 IU of vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Plaque removed in mice by equiv. of 14,000 IU daily
- OBSERVATION: DDT (which decreases Vit D) increases risk of Alzheimer's by up to 3.8X
- FACT: Vitamin D is extremely low cost and has very very few side effects
- CONCLUSION: Everyone concerned about cognitive decline or Alzheimer's Disease should take vitamin D
- PREDICTION: By 2024 Omega-3 and high dose Vitamin D will be found to reverse Alzheimer's in humans
- As of 2018 that combination has worked well with Multiple Sclerosis, Sleep, and Cluster Headaches
There are 12+ Alzheimer’s meta-analyses in VitaminDWiki
There are 84+ Alzheimer’s studies in VitaminDWiki
Dementia is associated with low vitamin D - many studies 50+
48 studies in both categories Cognitive and Omega-3 see below
The End of Alzheimer's - if custom adjust Vitamin D, B-12, Iron, Omega-3, etc.
Customizing the types of treatment to the individual results in reversing Alzheimer's2X better attention and working memory if high vitamin D among seniors living in communities – April 2015
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