Vitamin D-biofortified beef: A comparison of cholecalciferol with synthetic versus UVB-mushroom-derived ergosterol as feed source
Food Chemistry, Vol 256, 1 August 2018, Pages 18–24, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.02.099
Sarah K. Duffya, John V. O'Dohertya, , , Gaurav Rajauriaa, Louise C. Clarkea, Aoife Hayesb, Kirsten G. Dowlingb, Michael N. O'Gradyc, Joseph P. Kerryc, Jette Jakobsend, Kevin D. Cashmanb, Alan K. Kellya
- UVB-exposed vitamin D2-rich mushroom used as a natural novel feed ingredient.
- Dietary biofortification can successfully enhance beef vitamin D content.
- Vitamin D3 is efficient supplementation source to boost beef vitamin D activity.
- Consumption of vitamin D3-biofortified diet can contribute ∼20% to the current EAR
EAR = 400 IU (RDA = 600 IU)
20% of ERA = 80 IU
- Add vitamin D to animal feed to fortify the resulting human food – Oct 2012
- Cost of getting 400 IU of vitamin D from food has risen much faster than CPI – April 2015
- Free range eggs have 4X as much vitamin D
- Feed chicken lots of vitamin D, get 6000 IU per egg with no change in production – Nov 2013
Appears to be far more cost effective than feeding Vitamin D to cattle
This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p < 0.001) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p < 0.05) and serum 25-OH-D concentration (by 20–36%; p < 0.05), compared to that from Vit D2 and Mushroom D2 supplemented animals. Irrespective of vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, vitamin D3 biofortification of cattle diets is the most efficacious way to enhance total beef vitamin D activity.