J Gen Intern Med. 2011 Oct;26(10):1105-11. Epub 2011 Apr 21.
Fiscella K, Winters P, Tancredi D, Franks P.
Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14620, USA. Kevin_Fiscella at URMC.rochester.edu
BACKGROUND: Higher prevalence of hypertension among African Americans is a key cause of racial disparity in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Explanations for the difference in prevalence are incomplete. Emerging data suggest that low vitamin D levels may contribute.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the contribution of vitamin D to racial disparity in blood pressure.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis.
PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-Hispanic Black and White participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.
MEASURES:We assessed Black-White differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) controlling for conventional risk factors, and then additionally, for vitamin D (serum 25[OH]D).
RESULTS: The sample included 1984 and 5156 Black and White participants ages 20 years and older. The mean age-sex adjusted Black-White SBP difference was 5.2 mm Hg. This difference was reduced to 4.0 mm Hg with additional adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, health status, health care, health behaviors, and biomarkers; adding 25(OH)D reduced the race difference by 26% (95% CI 7-46%) to 2.9 mm Hg. This effect increased to 39% (95% CI 14-65%) when those on antihypertensive medications were excluded. Supplementary analyses that controlled for cardiovascular fitness, percent body fat, physical activity monitoring, skin type and social support yielded consistent results.
CONCLUSION: In cross-sectional analyses, 25(OH)D explains one quarter of the Black-White disparity in SBP.
Randomized controlled trials are required to determine whether vitamin D supplementation could reduce racial disparity in BP.
Comment in J Gen Intern Med. 2011 Oct;26(10):1088-9.
PDF is attached at bottom of this page
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- Hypothesis that lack of vitamin D increases blood pressure in blacks – July 2010
- Overview Dark Skin and Vitamin D
- Metabolic Syndrome and vitamin D Diabetes is one of the Metabolic Syndrome diseases
- 90 percent of Dark Skinned diabetics had less than 30 ng of vitamin D – July 2011
- Striking ethnic health disparity – blacks dying due to lack of vitamin D – Nov 2011
- Do blacks have a 5 year life penalty due to low vitamin D
- Race vs vitamin D level - Veith May 2011
- All items in category Hypertension
- Vitamin D different relationship between whites and blacks for bone and plaque – June 2012
- Faster heart rate and higher systolic blood pressure associated with low vitamin D – Jan 2010