Vitamin D and thyroid diseases.
Physiol Res. 2015;64 Suppl 2:S95-S100.
Vondra K1, Stárka L, Hampl R.
1Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic. kvondra at endo.cz.
In this review we summarize recent opinions on the possible role of vitamin D in the risk of thyroid diseases development. It may be concluded from the available data that vitamin D deficiency, particularly levels below 12.5 ng/ml should be considered as an additional, but important risk factor for development of thyroid autoimmunity, both chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves´ disease. A higher risk of Graves´ disease development is also associated with several polymorphisms in the gene encoding for vitamin D binding protein and for the specific receptor of active form of vitamin D - 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) in the respective target cells. Important for development of thyroid cancer appeared polymorphisms of genes encoding for vitamin D receptors and of genes encoding for the participating hydroxylating enzymes in thyroid tissue, leading to a diminished local 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) formation capacity with following alteration of antiproliferatory, antiapoptotic and prodifferentiating efficacy of the latter. Whether supplementation with high doses of vitamin D or its analogues possesses preventive or therapeutic effect is an object of intensive studies.
Conclusions from PDF
Based on our experience and data from the literature it may be expected that significant vitamin D deficiency would occur in the most of the subjects suffering from various forms of thyroid autoimmunity.The question arises, how to react to this situation.Whether to recommend sunning, bearing however many risks (skin aging, provoking of inflammation or even cancerogenic effect) and/or food supplements containing vitamin D precursors, or pharmacological substitution. Vitamin D supplementation should be offered to the deficient patients, the current opinion considers as optimal and at the same time safe a serum blood level of 25(OH)D3 within the range 30-40 ng/ml (75-100 nmol/l). In the most valid studies such levels are believed to possess a number of beneficial effects. Whether supplementation with high doses of vitamin D or its analogues has preventive or therapeutic effect on thyroid autoimmunity is a subject of intensive studies.
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