Nutrients. 2015 Apr 3;7(4):2485-2498.
Wang J1, Lv S2, Chen G3, Gao C4, He J5, Zhong H6, Xu Y7.
1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000, China. wangjiying90 at aliyun.com.
2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000, China. lss219219 at 163.com.
3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000, China. terry1210 at aliyun.com.
4Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000, China. gaochenlin00 at 126.com.
5Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000, China. hyjx88 at 163.com.
6Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000, China. zhh-302102 at 163.com.
7Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000, China. xywyll at aliyun.com.
Although emerging evidence suggests that low levels of vitamin D may contribute to the development of autoimmune disease, the relationship between vitamin D reduction and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), which includes Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), is still controversial. The aim was to evaluate the association between vitamin D levels and AITD through systematic literature review. We identified all studies that assessed the association between vitamin D and AITD from PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. We included studies that compared vitamin D levels between AITD cases and controls as well as those that measured the odds of vitamin D deficiency by AITD status. We combined the standardized mean differences (SMD) or the odds ratios (OR) in a random effects model. Twenty case-control studies provided data for a quantitative meta-analysis.
Compared to controls, AITD patients had lower levels of 25(OH)D (SMD: -0.99, 95% CI: -1.31, -0.66) and were more likely to be deficient in 25(OH)D (OR 2.99, 95% CI: 1.88, 4.74). Furthermore, subgroup analyses result showed that GD and HT patients also had lower 25(OH)D levels and were more likely to have a 25(OH)D deficiency, suggesting that low levels of serum 25(OH)D was related to AITD.
25 Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency and Its Relationship to Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in the Elderly
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Aug 26;13(9). pii: E850.
Muscogiuri G1, Mari D2,3, Prolo S4,5, Fatti LM6, Cantone MC7, Garagnani P8,9, Arosio B10,11, Di Somma C12, Vitale G13,14.
Background: Low 25(OH) vitamin D levels have been associated with several autoimmune diseases and recently with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). The aim of the study was to investigate the association of AT with low 25(OH) vitamin D levels in the elderly.
Methods: One hundred sixty-eight elderly subjects (mean age: 81.6 ± 9.4 years) were enrolled. Serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D, anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab), anti-thyroglobulin (TG-Ab) antibodies, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured.
RESULTS: The prevalence of AT was significantly higher in subjects with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH) vitamin D < 20 ng/mL) when compared with subjects with normal 25(OH) vitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D ≥ 20 ng/mL) levels (28% vs. 8%, respectively, p = 0.002). Patients with AT and vitamin D deficiency had a comparable hormonal profile compared to patients with AT and vitamin D sufficiency in terms of TSH (p = 0.39), FT3 (p = 0.30), FT4 (p = 0.31), TG-Ab (0.44) and TPO-Ab (0.35). Interestingly, a significant correlation between 25(OH) vitamin D and TPO-Ab (r = -0.27, p = 0.03) and FT3 (r = 0.35, p = 0.006) has been found in subjects with AT while no correlation was found between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and TG-Ab (r = -0.15, p = 0.25), TSH (r = -0.014, p = 0.09) and FT4 (r = 0.13, p = 0.32).
Conclusions: These findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with AT in the elderly. Therefore, the screening for AT should be suggested in subjects with vitamin D deficiency.
PMID: 27571093 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph13090850
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- Overview Thyroid and Vitamin D
- Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Vitamin D - multiple studies
- Autoimmune Thyroid Disease 2X more likely if low vitamin D – Dec 2013
- Graves Disease is 2.2X more likely with low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2015
- Thyroid diseases and vitamin D – review 2015
- Health problems that run in families are often associated with low vitamin D
"Example: familial autoimmunity in Graves’ disease 14 X more likely to have family members to have pernicious anemia or RA"
"If goiters are present, it is understood as Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis."
"Hyperthyroidism can cause sweating, rapid heart rate, anxiety, tremors, fatigue, difficulty sleeping, sudden weight loss, and protruding eyes."
"Hypothyroidism can cause weight gain, fatigue, dry skin, hair loss, intolerance to cold, and constipation"
"“Thyroid autoimmunity is familial. The disease is said to be inherited as a dominant trait since it has been reported that as many as fifty percent of the first degree relatives of patients with some type of autoimmune thyroiditis present thyroid antibodies in serum"
"Autoimmune thyroiditis has a higher prevalence in societies that have a higher intake of iodine in their diet, such as the United States and Japan."
- An Introduction to Graves’ Disease Mercola April 2017
Also has: Learn More About Graves' Disease:, Graves' Disease: Introduction, What Is Graves' Disease?
Graves' Disease Symptoms. Graves' Disease Causes, Graves' Disease Treatment, Graves' Disease Diet, Graves' Disease FAQ
"Natural Ways to Treat Graves’ Disease" includes Vitamin D and Selenium