Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(7), 2386-2395; doi:10.3390/ijerph9072386
Bang Hyun Kim1, bangk at upenn.edu, Karen Glanz 1 and Eric J. Nehl 2
1 Center for Health Behavior Research, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 110 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Ave., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2 Emory Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30222, USA
Received: 30 April 2012; in revised form: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 28 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sunbathing Habits and Skin Cancer)
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to examine certain beliefs about vitamin D and associations with sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and sunburns. A total of 3,922 lifeguards, pool managers, and parents completed a survey in 2006 about beliefs regarding vitamin D and sun-related behaviors. Multivariate ordinal regression analyses and linear regression analysis were used to examine associations of beliefs and other variables. Results revealed that Non-Caucasian lifeguards and pool managers were less likely to agree that they needed to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D.
Lifeguards and parents who were non-Caucasian were less likely to report that sunlight helped the body to produce vitamin D.
A stronger belief about the need to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D predicted more sun exposure for lifeguards.
For parents, a stronger belief that they can get enough vitamin D from foods predicted greater sun protection and a stronger belief that sunlight helps the body produce vitamin D predicted lower sun exposure. This study provides information regarding vitamin D beliefs and their association with certain sun related behaviors across different demographic groups that can inform education efforts about vitamin D and sun protection.
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
- Complex relationship between UVB and vitamin D – April 2012
This article may result in a re-write of this web page. It questions many of the assumptions made here about
Amount of skin area, color or skin, obesity, etc. There are several reasons why the study may be wrong however.
- All items in category Sun and vitamin D
- Urban residents had 2X less vitamin D – 2008
- 4X more suburban UV than urban UV – Nov 2010
- all items in Category Deficiency of D
- An overview analysis of the time people spend outdoors – Dec 2010
- Melanoma risk with sunburns - 2010.PDF
- UVB causes sunburn - UVA causes melanoma - 2011.PDF
- Poor knowledge by office workers of vitamin D and sunscreen - July 2010
- Scared Out of the Sun for Fifty Years – Jan 2011
- Overview Suntans and melanoma
- Increased UVB intensity did not increase vitamin D generated – Nov 2010
- Is there a limit as to how much vitamin D the body will produce over a several day time period? replenish cholesterol?
- For small amounts of sunshine the amount of skin exposed may not matter – Jan 2011
- Minutes in the Sun for 1000 IU default 30 degrees North
- Face 3.5%, neck 2%, trunk 26%, hands 6%, arms 14%, legs 14%, thighs 18%
- Sun increases but tanning bed decreases longevity - April 2011 PDF file
- UV calculators on the web
- Many reasons why vitamin D deficiency has become epidemic in past 30-40 years
- Weekly UV almost doubled elderly Vitamin D levels to 20 ng – Dec 2010
- Tanning while getting little vitamin D
- Whites were 2X more likely to be vitamin D deficient if wear long sleeves – Jan 2012
No decrease, however, for reported use of sunscreen
- UK survey of vitamin D knowledge of midwives - 2011
- Survey of patient and doctor vitamin D knowledge - Nov 2010
- 28 pct of dark skinned people in UK not heard of vitamin D and 54 pct not know symptoms – Jan 2012
- UK pediatricians have a lot to learn about vitamin D – May 2012
- 15 minutes of education improved vitamin D compliance – Mar 2012
- After learning they were vitamin D deficient, only 8 percent normalized – April 2012
- Sun-seeking behavior to increase cutaneous vitamin D synthesis: when prevention messages conflict 2011 full text on-line
30 % were aware that unprotected sun exposure increased vitamin D levels.
Women were a little more aware of this interaction than men (32 % vs. 28 %)
42 % of people who took vitamin D supplements were aware of the vitamin D-sun exposure interaction