American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Volume 0, Issue 0, https://doi.org/10.1111/aji.12991
Kassem Sharif Yousra Sharif Abdulla Watad Yarden Yavne Benjamin Lichtbroun Nicola Luigi Bragazzi Howard Amital Yehuda Shoenfeld
This "association" has been reported on many times
- Search VitaminDiiki for MISCARRIAGE OR "Spontaneous abortion" 541 as of June 2018
- Just 400 IU of daily Vitamin D reduced miscarriage (recurrent) by 3.5 times – RCT July 2016
- Miscarriage 2 times more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2017
- Miscarriage 10 percent more likely for each 10 ng less vitamin D at preconception – May 2018
- Frequent miscarriage associated with both lower vitamin D and poor Vitamin D receptor – Sept 2017
- Miscarriage in first trimester 2.5X more likely if less than 20 ng of vitamin D – July 2015
- Miscarriage 70 percent more likely if low vitamin D (see also data on CYP27B1) – May 2016
- Recurrent miscarriage associated with half as much vitamin D getting to fetus – Sept 2016
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects close to 1% of couples; however, the etiology is known in only about 50% of the cases. Recent studies show that autoimmune dysregulation is a probable cause of RPL, which in some cases may be overlooked. In order for a pregnancy to proceed to term, early modulation of immunologic response is required to induce tolerance to the semi‐allogenic fetus. Certain subsets of both the innate and adaptive immune responses play a role in the induction of fetomaternal tolerance. A relatively predominant T‐cell helper (Th) 2 and T regulatory (Treg) cell population seem to favor a better pregnancy outcome, whereas Th1 and Th17 cell populations appear to have an opposite effect. Lately, the role of vitamin D in the modulation of immune response was established. Vitamin D has been shown to promote a more favorable environment for pregnancy through various mechanisms, such as enhancement of the shift toward Th2 cells and regulation of immune cell differentiation and cytokine secretion.
Therefore, it seems that vitamin D deficiency sways the balance toward a worse outcome and may play a part in recurrent pregnancy loss. This review sheds light on the immunologic changes, which occur in early pregnancy and the regulatory role vitamin D has in the maintenance of this delicate balance.
Conclusions: The occurrence of RPL may be related to vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and Treg/Th17 imbalance. The Treg/Th17 imbalance in peripheral blood of RPL patients can be restored after vitamin D supplementation both in-vivo and in-vitro. The effects of vitamin D on the immune regulation of RPL indicate that vitamin D might be used as an alternative therapy in the future.
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