Vitamin D concentration and its association with past, current and future depression in older men: The Health In Men Study
Maturitas DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2015.01.016 Received: January 21, 2015; Accepted: January 31, 2015; Published Online: February 09, 2015
Osvaldo P. Almeidac osvaldo.almeida at uwa.edu.au , Graeme J. Hankey, Bu B. Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Leon Flicker
- Existing evidence from observational studies and randomised controlled trials suggests that low concentration of vitamin D is associated with depression, although findings are not compelling.
- If vitamin D deficiency is causally related to the onset of depressive symptoms, one would expect depression to be associated with vitamin D deficiency both cross-sectionally and prospectively, but not necessarily retrospectively.
- We investigated 3105 older men and found that the plasma concentration of vitamin D decreased progressively from no history of depression to past and then current depression. Moderate to severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of current depression, but not past or future depression.
- The results of this study do not support a role for vitamin D in the causation of depression, although a small antidepressant effect of vitamin D cannot be entirely discarded.
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with depression in later life, but it remains unclear whether this association is truly causal.
Observational study examining the retrospective, cross-sectional and prospective associations between vitamin D concentration and depressed mood in a community-derived sample of 3105 older men living in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. We measured the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D using standard procedures. Past depression was ascertained by direct questioning and through the use of administrative health data linkage. A geriatric depression scale score equal or greater 7/15 established the presence of current depression. Incident depression was established by a patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥10 or by administrative health data linkage during the 6-year follow up (range 0.1–10.9 years).
Vitamin D concentration <50 nmol/L was associated with greater odds of current (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.13, 2.42) but not past depression (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.83, 1.58). Of the 2740 men with no past or current history of depression, 81 developed clinically significant symptoms during follow up. The adjusted hazard ratio of incident depression for men with plasma vitamin D <50 nmol/L was 1.03 (95% CI = 0.59, 1.79; adjusted for age, living arrangements, season, and prevalent cardiovascular diseases).
Our results do not support a role for vitamin D in the causation of depression, although a small antidepressant effect of vitamin D cannot be entirely discarded. Large randomised placebo-controlled trials are required to dismiss or establish with certainty the causal link between vitamin D deficiency and depression.
Were some people being told to keep their vitamin D levels above 40 ng?
A person can easily have a good level of vitamin D, then get Diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis, HIV, colon cancer, fear of skin cancer,or just spend more time indoors as they become seniors.
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