Higher amounts of body fat are associated with inadequate intakes of calcium and vitamin D in African American women
Nutrition Research; Volume 31, Issue 7, July 2011, Pages 527-536; doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2011.06.005
Diane K. Tidwell a, ditdwell at fsnhp.msstate.edu and Melinda W. Valliant b
a Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Health Promotion, PO Box 9805, Mississippi State, MS 39762
b Department of Nutrition and Hospitality Management, The University of Mississippi
Received 11 October 2010; revised 22 June 2011; accepted 23 June 2011, online 12 August 2011.
Calcium and vitamin D are associated with obesity. We hypothesized that African American women with higher calcium and vitamin D intakes would have lower body fat compared with women with lower calcium and vitamin D intakes. This cross-sectional study included 100 premenopausal African American women aged 18 to 40 years with a spectrum of body mass indices (17.3-46.7 kg/m2). Dietary information was obtained using 24-h recalls. Total body fat was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and reported as percentage body fat (%BF). Subjects' data were divided into 2 groups (n = 50 per group) based on the median quartile of %BF, and differences were determined using independent t tests. Women with at least 37.9%BF had mean calcium (mg per day ± SD) and vitamin D intakes (µg per day ± SD) of 528.6 ± 146.0 and 3.8 ± .9, respectively. In comparison, women with lower %BF (<37.9%) had higher (P < .001) calcium and vitamin D intakes of 911.5 ± 208.3 and 5.0 ± 0.8, respectively.
Partial correlation coefficients (controlling for the confounding variables of fat, carbohydrate, and protein intakes) indicated significant (P < 0.001) inverse associations between calcium intake and %BF (r = ?.666), and vitamin D and %BF (r = ?.460) in the 100 women.
In conclusion, women with lower intakes of calcium and vitamin D were more likely to exhibit excessive adiposity compared with women with higher intakes.
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