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Middle-aged women gained weight if they did not drink fortified milk – Sept 2010

High-calcium milk prevents overweight and obesity among postmenopausal women.

Food Nutr Bull. 2010 Sep;31(3):381-90.
Angeles-Agdeppa I, Capanzana MV, Li-Yu J, Schollum LM, Kruger MC.
Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Taguig City, Philippines. imelda_agdeppa at yahoo.com

BACKGROUND: The Sixth National Nutrition Survey 2003 revealed that the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity among Filipino female adults (30.8%) was found in the age group from 40 to 59 years. Obesity is associated with a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Low calcium intake has been identified as a potential contributing factor to overweight and obesity.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a high-calcium, fortified, low-fat milk drink with added vitamin D versus a low-calcium placebo drink on anthropometric measurements of postmenopausal women.

METHODS: Women who were at least 5 years postmenopausal were invited to participate in the study. Potential participants underwent three stages of screening: initial interview, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and blood testing for biochemical screening. Anthropometric indices were measured at baseline and the end of the study. Sixty women were qualified to participate in the study. The women were randomly assigned to two groups, one of which received 400 ml of the high-calcium milk daily for 16 weeks while the other received the placebo drink.

RESULTS: No significant increases were observed in the anthropometric indices of the subjects receiving the high-calcium fortified milk at the end of the study. However, there were significant increases in the weight (p = .008), body mass index (p = .007), and waist (p = .018) and hip (p = .003) circumferences of the subjects receiving the placebo drink.

CONCLUSIONS: A change in dietary calcium intake may be a useful measure as part of an overall approach to prevent the occurrence of overweight and obesity among postmenopausal women.
PMID: 20973459
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So, which of the variables were vital: milk solids, added Calcium, vitamin D?

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