Aortic Stiffness and Vitamin D are Independent Markers of Aortic Calcification in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and in Healthy Subjects
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery; doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2011.07.027
M. Zaguraa, b, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, M. Sergb, c, P. Kampusa, b, c, M. Zilmera, b, J. Ehab, c, E. Untd, e, J. Liebergf, g, J.R. Cockcrofth and J. Kalsa, b, f
a Department of Biochemistry, Centre of Excellence for Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
b Endothelial Centre, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
c Department of Cardiology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
d Department of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
e Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia
f Department of Vascular Surgery, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia
g Department of Surgery, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
h Department of Cardiology, Wales Heart Research Institute, Cardiff, UK
Arterial stiffness is a significant determinant of cardiovascular risk and is related to vascular calcification. Vitamin D may regulate arterial calcification and has been associated with cardiovascular survival benefits. However, data about the relationship between arterial stiffness, aortic calcification and vitamin D levels in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and in healthy subjects are limited. We examined the potential association between aortic calcification, arterial stiffness and vitamin D levels in patients with symptomatic PAD and in healthy individuals.
We studied 78 men with PAD (aged 63 ± 7 years) and 74 healthy men (aged 61 ± 10 years). Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) was determined by applanation tonometry using the Sphygmocor device. Aortic calcification score (ACS) was quantified by computed tomography. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured using a radioimmune assay.
ACS (4.9(2.3–8.9) vs. 0.2(0.03–1.6) (cm3); p < 0.01),
aPWV (9.8 ± 2.4 vs. 8.2 ± 1.6 (m s?1); p < 0.01) and
25(OH)D (15.1 ± 5.4 vs. 19.0 ± 5.9 (ng ml?1); p < 0.01)
were different in the patients compared with the controls.
In multivariate analysis, ACS was independently determined by 25(OH)D,
- aPWV, calcium and age in patients with PAD (R2 = 0.49; p < 0.001) and by
- 25(OH)D, aPWV, cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and age in the control group (R2 = 0.55; p < 0.001).
Increased aPWV and lower levels of 25(OH)D were associated with decreased ankle–brachial pressure index (p = 0.03).
These results indicate that calcification of the aorta is independently associated with aortic stiffness and serum 25(OH)D level in patients with PAD and in healthy subjects. Aortic stiffness and abnormal vitamin D level may contribute to vascular calcification and are related to higher severity grade of atherosclerotic disease.
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24X less Calcification if 19 ng instead of 15 ng vitamin D
Wonder how much less if had say 60 ng Vitamin D
- Overview Cardiovascular and vitamin D
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