Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018,15, 2342; doi:10.3390/ijerph15112342
Mairead Kiely * and Kevin D. Cashman
Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, T12ND89 Cork, Ireland; k.cashman at ucc.ie * Correspondence: m.kiely at ucc.ie; Tel.: +353-21-4903394
Observations by Henry Lahore, founder of VitaminDWiki
- Some groups in Europe believe that Vitamin D levels as low as 20 ng are OK
- Varous groups around the world believe that vitamin D levels should be much higher:
- 30 ng, 40 ng or perhaps 50 ng
- A lot more Vitamin D is needed by those with dark skins
- It is very difficult to use population-wide food fortification to achieve an acceptable Vitamin D level for all peoples
- Basic problem with fortification: There is no type of food that virtually all people in a population eat consistantly
- Even if three food types were fortified - say Bread + milk + meat would not cover the needs needing even more: - dark skin, obese, etc.
- ODIN had tried for many years, but now appears to have given up
- Basic problem with fortification: There is no type of food that virtually all people in a population eat consistantly
- Vitamin D Deficiency in Europe- need at least 1000 IU to get to even 20 ng – Cashman April 2019
- Vitamin D food fortification – many trials listed – Aug 2018
- International Conference of Vitamin D Fortification of Food (India) – Sept 2018
- Children no longer get much vitamin D from milk - fortify at home
- Low fat milk provides 2.5 times less vitamin D – May 2016
- France wants to reduce hip fractures by drinking 10 glasses of milk daily – April 2018
- Is 50 ng of vitamin D too high, just right, or not enough
- Vitamin D is needed for human fertility – goal is 50 ng – Sept 2018
- Guide for patients on high doses of Vitamin D – Coimbra 2017
- Vitamin D - at least 4,000 IU to achieve 40-60 ng and reduce risk of early death – Holick June 2018
- Vitamin D Consensus, Brazil – Many people need 30 – 60 ng – Nov 2017
- Low Vitamin D in Southern Europe – 1 in 3 had less than 20 ng (630,000 Europeans) Sept 2018
- Vast majority of Europeans have less than 30 ng of Vitamin D – Aug 2016 has this table
|Study||Countries||< 30 ng|
|Tromsø Study: Fit Futures||Norway||96%|
|Cork BASELINE Birth||Ireland||84%|
|NDNS 1–18 y||United Kingdom||90%|
|NDNS >18 y||United Kingdom||91%|
|Tromsø Study–6th Survey||Norway||75%|
|Finnish Migrant Health . .||Finland||89%|
Food-based solutions for optimal vitamin D nutrition and health through the life cycle (ODIN) was a cross-disciplinary, collaborative project, including 30 partners from 19 countries, which aimed to develop evidence-based solutions to prevent low vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 30 nmol/L) using a food-first approach.
This paper provides a summary overview of some of the important ODIN outcomes and outlines some outstanding data requirements. In a study of almost 56,000 individuals, the first internationally standardised dataset of vitamin D status showed that 13% of EU residents overall, across a latitude gradient of 35° N to 69° N, had serum 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L and 40% were < 50 nmol/L.
The risk of low vitamin D status was several-fold higher among persons of ethnic minority
However, additional data from quality bio-banked sera would be required to improve these estimates.
To address the question of dietary requirements for vitamin D among under-researched life-stage and population groups, four dose-response RCTs conducted in Northern Europe showed that vitamin D3 intakes of 8 and 13 ug/day prevented 25(OH)D decreasing below 30 nmol/L in white children and adolescents and 20 and 30 ug/day, respectively, achieved >50 nmol/L.
Among white women during pregnancy, 30 ug/day is required to prevent umbilical cord 25(OH)D, representing new-born vitamin D status, below 25 nmol/L. While 8 pg/day protected white women in Finland at the 30 nmol/L cut-off, 18 ug/day was needed by women of East African descent to prevent 25(OH)D decreasing below 30 nmol/L during wintertime.
Replicate RCTs are needed in young children <5 years and in school-age children, teens and pregnant women of ethnic minority. Using a series of food production studies, food-based RCTs and dietary modelling experiments, ODIN research shows that diverse fortification strategies could safely increase population intakes and prevent low vitamin D status. Building on this solid technological platform, implementation research is now warranted to scale up interventions in real-world settings to eradicate vitamin D deficiency.
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