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Breastfed infants: 90 percent had less than 20 ng of vitamin D, formula-fed: 15 percent – May 2013

Vitamin D deficiency in infants aged 1 to 6 months.

Korean J Pediatr. 2013 May;56(5):205-10. doi: 10.3345/kjp.2013.56.5.205.
Choi YJ, Kim MK, Jeong SJ.

Department of Pediatrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to recognize the state of vitamin D among healthy infants aged 1 to 6 months in South Korea, and also to identify the risk factors affecting the level of vitamin D.

METHODS: A total of 117 infants were enrolled in this study for 12 months, from March 1, 2011 to February 29, 2012. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were measured and data including birth weight, body weight, sex, feeding pattern, delivery mode, siblings and maternal age and occupation were collected. Data was mainly analyzed with independent t-test model.

RESULTS: We determined that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25[OH]D<20 ng/mL [50 mmol/L]) was 48.7% in the population investigated. Particularly in breastfed infants, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was strikingly high (90.4%). The mean serum level of 25(OH)D in breastfed infants was lower than that of formula fed infants (9.35 ng/mL vs. 28.79 ng/mL). Also female infants showed lower mean serum level of 25(OH)D than male. Mean serum values of calcium and phosphorus had positive correlation with vitamin D state (P<0.001).

CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency was found to be very common in infants aged 1 to 6 months in South Korea, and breast feeding was the most critical risk factor of vitamin D deficiency.
Therefore we suggest to start vitamin D supplementation in South Korea, as soon as possible, to all infants, including breastfed and female infants.

PMID: 23741234
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page


EDITORIAL in same issue: Comparison of the serum vitamin D level between breastfed and formula-fed infants:
several factors which can affect serum vitamin D concentration

Korean J Pediatr 2013 May;56(5) :202-204
Yong Joo Kim, kyjoo at hanyang.ac.kr
Department of Pediatrics, Hanyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea
Formula in Korea = 258 IU of vitamin D / Liter, and infants often take < 1 liter
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page


Notes by VitaminDWiki

  1. These were averages for the year - PDF shows far more infant were deficient when born in the fall, winter
  2. The averages are for 20 ng. Many countries consider that the vitamin D level should be 30 ng
  3. The averages for for both sexes - the girls had lower levels of vitamin D
  4. Korea is 37 degrees away from the equator (vs UK is 57 degrees away)

See also VitaminDWiki

See also web

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
2568 1-6 Editorial.pdf PDF 2013 admin 09 Jun, 2013 21:26 193.48 Kb 644
2567 1-6 months.pdf PDF 2013 admin 09 Jun, 2013 20:46 261.96 Kb 857
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