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Variety of pregnancy problems with low vitamin D – systematic review Sept 2012

The impact of vitamin D on pregnancy: a systematic review.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 Sep 14. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12000.
Christesen HT, Falkenberg T, Lamont RF, Jørgensen JS.
Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Clinical Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Division of Surgery, University College, London, UK.

Hypovitaminosis D is common in pregnancy.
To systematically review the evidence on vitamin D-dependent pregnancy outcomes, PubMed and Embase were searched for randomized control trials, cohort and case-control studies.

In randomized control trials (n = 7), larger doses of vitamin D resulted in

  • higher 25-hydroxylated vitamin D (25OHD) levels (n = 6),
  • increased maternal weight gain (n = 1), and
  • fewer classical vitamin D deficiency symptoms (n = 1).

In observational studies (n = 32), lower vitamin D intake, or low 25OHD-levels, were associated with

  • adverse fertility parameters (n = 2),
  • preeclampsia (n = 5),
  • gestational diabetes or higher blood glucose (n = 6),
  • bacterial vaginosis (n = 4),
  • primary cesarean section (n = 1), none (n = 3) or a few days' (n = 2) shorter gestation, and
  • postpartum depression (n = 1).

Studies with few participants having low 25OHD did not identify an association to preeclampsia (n = 5) or gestational diabetes (n = 2). Increased odds of pregnancy-associated breast cancer with 25OHD >25.8 nmol/L were observed (n = 1). In conclusion, an effect of vitamin D on several pregnancy outcomes is suggested.

© 2012 The Authors?Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
PMID: 22974137
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See also VitaminDWiki

IU Cumulative Benefit Blood level CofactorsCalcium $*/year
400 Less Rickets (but not zero with 400 IU)
3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
Fewer child seizures
20-30 ng/ml Not needed No effect $3
2000 2X More likely to get pregnant naturally/IVF
2X Fewer dental problems with pregnancy
8X less diabetes
4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
5X less child asthma
2X fewer language problems age 5
42 ng/ml Desirable < 750 mg $15
4000 2X fewer pregnancy complications
2X fewer pre-term births
49 ng/ml Must have
< 750 mg $75
6000 Probable: larger benefits for above items
Perhaps prevent 2nd autistic child
   clinical trials underway
Just enough D for breastfed infant
Must have
< 750 mg $85
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