Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 Sep 14. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12000.
Christesen HT, Falkenberg T, Lamont RF, Jørgensen JS.
Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Clinical Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Division of Surgery, University College, London, UK.
Hypovitaminosis D is common in pregnancy.
To systematically review the evidence on vitamin D-dependent pregnancy outcomes, PubMed and Embase were searched for randomized control trials, cohort and case-control studies.
In randomized control trials (n = 7), larger doses of vitamin D resulted in
- higher 25-hydroxylated vitamin D (25OHD) levels (n = 6),
- increased maternal weight gain (n = 1), and
- fewer classical vitamin D deficiency symptoms (n = 1).
In observational studies (n = 32), lower vitamin D intake, or low 25OHD-levels, were associated with
- adverse fertility parameters (n = 2),
- preeclampsia (n = 5),
- gestational diabetes or higher blood glucose (n = 6),
- bacterial vaginosis (n = 4),
- primary cesarean section (n = 1), none (n = 3) or a few days' (n = 2) shorter gestation, and
- postpartum depression (n = 1).
Studies with few participants having low 25OHD did not identify an association to preeclampsia (n = 5) or gestational diabetes (n = 2). Increased odds of pregnancy-associated breast cancer with 25OHD >25.8 nmol/L were observed (n = 1). In conclusion, an effect of vitamin D on several pregnancy outcomes is suggested.
© 2012 The Authors?Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
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- Pregnancy and vitamin D meta-analysis – July 2012
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- 7X more likely to have low birth weight babies when mother very low on vitamin D – March 2010
- Arab pre-term infants often have less than 10 ng of vitamin D - 2010
- Pre-term births report USA-Today May 2012
Of all births: US Blacks 17%, US whites 11%, Germany 9%, UK Canada, Australia 8%, France 7%, Japan 6%
For 62 out of 65 countries, the rate of premature births has been increasing
comment by a reader " maternal obesity which increases chance of premature delivery 30%" see original 126 page study
- Low birth weight 3X more likely if mother had less than 25 nanograms of vitamin D – May 2012
- Overview Dark Skin and Pregnancy
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D which had the following table Aug 2012
|IU||Cumulative Benefit||Blood level||Cofactors||Calcium||$*/year|
|400|| Less Rickets (but not zero with 400 IU)|
3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
Fewer child seizures
|20-30 ng/ml||Not needed||No effect||$3|
|2000|| 2X More likely to get pregnant naturally/IVF |
2X Fewer dental problems with pregnancy
8X less diabetes
4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
5X less child asthma
2X fewer language problems age 5
|42 ng/ml||Desirable||< 750 mg||$15|
|4000|| 2X fewer pregnancy complications |
2X fewer pre-term births
|49 ng/ml|| Must have |
|< 750 mg||$75|
|6000||Probable: larger benefits for above items|
Perhaps prevent 2nd autistic child
clinical trials underway
Just enough D for breastfed infant
|< 750 mg||$85|