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Taurine fights many health problems and increases Vitamin D absorption - May 2024

Perplexity AI May 2024

Which health problems are fought by taurine

19 references
Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, has been extensively studied for its potential health benefits across a range of conditions. The research indicates that taurine may have therapeutic effects on several health problems, including cardiovascular diseases, liver disorders, cognitive function, and eye health, among others. Here's a detailed look at the health problems taurine is suggested to fight:

Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Taurine may benefit individuals with heart failure by lowering blood pressure and calming the nervous system, potentially preventing heart failure from worsening.
  • It has shown benefits to the cardiovascular system, possibly by inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system, and has anti-inflammatory effects that improve diabetes 3.
  • High dietary taurine has been associated with reduced apoptosis and atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery, indicating its potential in preventing cardiovascular disease 4.
Liver Disorders
  • Taurine has been found to preserve liver function and prevent hyperammonemia in models of chronic and acute liver injury, suggesting its usefulness as a safe agent for liver health 2.
  • It has been effective in treating alcohol-induced hepatic injury, although the precise signaling involved in its protective activity is still being investigated 15.
Cognitive Function and Neurological Disorders
  • Despite small clinical trials not showing benefits to cognitive function in humans, taurine's role in cognitive vitality and its potential neuroprotective strategies upon brain health have been explored 1 6.
  • Taurine supplementation has shown neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity induced by amyloid-β or glutamate in vitro, suggesting its potential in treating neurological disorders 6.
  • It has been reported to protect against neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, cerebral ischemia, memory dysfunction, and spinal cord injury, through modulation of various cellular processes 19.
Eye Health
  • Taurine plays a protective role in the retina, pivotal in reducing visual fatigue and maintaining eye health. It shields retinal cells from oxidative stress damage, inflammation, apoptosis, and ocular neurotoxicity 18.
  • Increasing data indicate that taurine supplementation may be effective in slowing down the progression of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, AMD, and DR 9.
Other Health Benefits
  • Taurine has been shown to attenuate hepatic inflammation in chronic alcohol-fed rats through inhibition of specific signaling pathways, suggesting its role in mitigating inflammation 15.
  • It has been identified as a strong activator of GABA receptors in the brain, which could explain its calming effects and potential benefits for mental health 5.

In summary, taurine exhibits a broad spectrum of potential health benefits, particularly in cardiovascular and liver health, cognitive and neurological function, and eye health. However, while the research is promising, further studies, especially in humans, are needed to fully understand the extent of taurine's therapeutic effects and the mechanisms behind

Is there any relationship between taurine and "vitamin d"? (yes)

8 references
Yes, there is a relationship between taurine and vitamin D, particularly concerning the absorption and regulation of vitamin D in the body. Several studies have highlighted how taurine influences vitamin D levels and its absorption:

  • Taurine and Vitamin D Absorption: Taurine plays a crucial role in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D. It is involved in the conjugation with bile acids, which assists in the absorption of these vitamins. This is particularly significant in the context of dietary intake and supplementation, where taurine's presence can enhance the effectiveness of vitamin D absorption.
  • Studies on Infants: Research focusing on preterm infants has shown that low dietary intake of taurine can compromise the absorption of vitamin D. In a study, preterm infants fed a taurine-free formula exhibited lower levels of plasma taurine and significantly lower levels of vitamin D metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) compared to those fed a taurine-supplemented formula or human milk 1. This suggests that taurine supplementation in infant formulas can be beneficial for improving vitamin D absorption.
  • Hypothesis on Taurine as a Universal Carrier: There is a hypothesis suggesting that taurine may act as a universal carrier for lipid-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D. This hypothesis is based on the ability of taurine to form water-soluble complexes with these vitamins, potentially enhancing their bioavailability 3.
  • Osteoporosis and Bone Health: Taurine is also linked to bone health through its role in regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis and supporting the absorption of vitamin D and vitamin K, both of which are crucial for bone mineral density and the prevention of osteoporosis 4.

In summary, taurine significantly impacts the absorption and regulation of vitamin D, which is essential for various physiological functions including bone health. Its role in enhancing the bioavailability of vitamin D and other fat-soluble vitamins makes it a critical component in dietary considerations, especially for populations at risk of deficiency such as preterm infants 1 3 4.

Is taurine in virtually every cell in the body?

Yes, taurine is found in virtually every cell in the body. It is a β-amino acid that exists in very high concentrations in most cells, particularly in excitable tissues such as the brain, retina, heart, and skeletal muscle 1. Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain and spinal cord, leukocytes, heart, muscle cells, and the retina 3. Additionally, it is present in significant amounts in other tissues and organs, including the liver, intestine, and many other tissues, as well as in bodily fluids like bile and milk. This widespread presence underscores its fundamental role in cellular function and health.

Taurine deficiency as a driver of aging - (Science) June 2023


Editor’s summary
Aging is associated with physiological changes that range in scale from organelles to organ systems, but we are still working to understand the molecular basis for these changes. Studying various animals, Singh et al. found that the amount of the semi-essential amino acid taurine in circulation decreased with age (see the Perspective by McGaunn and Baur). Supplementation with taurine slowed key markers of aging such as increased DNA damage, telomerase deficiency, impaired mitochondrial function, and cellular senescence. Loss of taurine in humans was associated with aging-related diseases, and concentrations of taurine and its metabolites increased in response to exercise. Taurine supplementation improved life span in mice and health span in monkeys. —L. Bryan Ray

Aging is an inevitable multifactorial process. Aging-related changes manifest as the “hallmarks of aging,” cause organ functions to decline, and increase the risk of disease and death. Aging is associated with systemic changes in the concentrations of molecules such as metabolites. However, whether such changes are merely the consequence of aging or whether these molecules are drivers of aging remains largely unexplored. If these were blood-based drivers of aging, then restoring their concentration or functions to “youthful” levels could serve as an antiaging intervention.
Taurine, a semiessential micronutrient, is one of the most abundant amino acids in humans and other eukaryotes. Earlier studies have shown that the concentration of taurine in blood correlates with health, but it is unknown whether blood taurine concentrations affect aging. To address this gap in knowledge, we measured the blood concentration of taurine during aging and investigated the effect of taurine supplementation on health span and life span in several species.
Blood concentration of taurine declines with age in mice, monkeys, and humans. To investigate whether this decline contributes to aging, we orally fed taurine or a control solution once daily to middle-aged wild-type female and male C57Bl/6J mice until the end of life. Taurine-fed mice of both sexes survived longer than the control mice. The median life span of taurine-treated mice increased by 10 to 12%, and life expectancy at 28 months increased by about 18 to 25%. A meaningful antiaging therapy should not only improve life span but also health span, the period of healthy living. We, therefore, investigated the health of taurine-fed middle-aged mice and found an improved functioning of bone, muscle, pancreas, brain, fat, gut, and immune system, indicating an overall increase in health span. We observed similar effects in monkeys. To check whether the observed effects of taurine transcended the species boundary, we investigated whether taurine supplementation increased life span in worms and yeast. Although taurine did not affect the replicative life span of unicellular yeast, it increased life span in multicellular worms. Investigations into the mechanism or mechanisms through which taurine supplementation improved the health span and life span revealed that taurine positively affected several hallmarks of aging. Taurine reduced cellular senescence, protected against telomerase deficiency, suppressed mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased DNA damage, and attenuated inflammation. An association analysis of metabolite clinical risk factors in humans showed that lower taurine, hypotaurine, and N-acetyltaurine concentrations were associated with adverse health, such as increased abdominal obesity, hypertension, inflammation, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, we found that a bout of exercise increased the concentrations of taurine metabolites in blood, which might partially underlie the antiaging effects of exercise.

Taurine abundance decreases during aging. A reversal of this decline through taurine supplementation increases health span and life span in mice and worms and health span in monkeys. This identifies taurine deficiency as a driver of aging in these species. To test whether taurine deficiency is a driver of aging in humans as well, long-term, well-controlled taurine supplementation trials that measure health span and life span as outcomes are required.
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