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Sun avoidance increases risk of death by 2X – April 2014

Avoidance of sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality: results from the MISS cohort.

J Intern Med. 2014 Apr 4. doi: 10.1111/joim.12251.
Lindqvist PG1, Epstein E, Landin-Olsson M, Ingvar C, Nielsen K, Stenbeck M, Olsson H.

Sunlight exposure and fair skin are major determinants of human vitamin D production, but they are also risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM). There is epidemiological evidence that all-cause mortality is related to low vitamin D levels.

We assessed the avoidance of sun exposure as a risk factor for all-cause mortality for 29,518 Swedish women in a prospective 20-year follow-up of the Melanoma in Southern Sweden (MISS) cohort. Women were recruited from 1990 to 1992, and were aged 25 to 64 years at the start of the study. We obtained detailed information at baseline on their sun exposure habits and potential confounders. Multivariable flexible parametric survival analysis was applied to the data.

There were 2545 deaths among the 29,518 women who responded to the initial questionnaire. We found that all-cause mortality was inversely related to sun exposure habits. The mortality rate among avoiders of sun exposure was approximately two-fold higher compared to the highest sun exposure group, resulting in excess mortality with a population attributable risk of 3%.

The results of this study provide observational evidence that avoiding sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality. Following sun exposure advice that is very restrictive in countries with low solar intensity might in fact be harmful to women's health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 24697969

Sun vs number of years


Sun vs age


PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
93 studies referemces the 2014 study as of July 2020

See also VitaminDWiki

Items in both categories Noon Sun and Mortality are listed here:

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Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
3809 Sun exposure vs age.jpg admin 15 Apr, 2014 28.64 Kb 1446
3808 Sun exposure vs years.jpg admin 15 Apr, 2014 26.83 Kb 1421
3807 Avoidance of sun exposure.pdf admin 15 Apr, 2014 258.45 Kb 1378