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Saliva and Vitamin D – many studies

Saliva and Vitamin D in keywords 2017

Vitamin D Testing-Where Are We and What Is on the Horizon?
Adv Clin Chem. 2017;78:59-101. doi: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.07.002. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
Heureux N1.
DIAsource Immunoassays, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Electronic address: nicolas.heureux at diasource.be.

Vitamin D testing is part of laboratory practice since more than 30 years but has become a routine parameter only recently, due to a highly increasing amount of research in the field resulting in new clinical applications. Vitamin D actually represents a family of molecules of which 25OH Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D, under their D3 and D2 forms, are the most important to date. Physical detection methods and immunoassays exist for both molecules and are being reviewed and discussed. New developments in the measurement of C3-epi-25OH Vitamin D, 24,25(OH)2 Vitamin D, and free/bioavailable 25OH Vitamin D are also presented. The future of Vitamin D testing is considered based on the evolution of laboratories and based on the scientific research that is currently performed.

Free Vitamin D; Measurement of Vitamin D; Vitamin D assay; Vitamin D by LC–MS; Vitamin D immunoassay; Vitamin D in saliva; Vitamin D testing

Saliva, Dental Caries and Immune peptide RCT Jan 2018 – with PDF

Vitamin D status and dental caries in healthy Swedish children
Nutr J. 2018 Jan 16;17(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s12937-018-0318-1.
Gyll J1, Ridell K2, Öhlund I3, Karlsland Åkeson P4, Johansson I5, Lif Holgerson P6.

Vitamin D is crucial for mineralized tissue formation and immunological functions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and dental status in healthy children with vitamin D supplementation in infancy and at 6 years of age.

Eight-year-old children who had participated in a vitamin D intervention project when they were 6 years old were invited to participate in a dental follow-up study. They had fair or darker skin complexion and represented two geographically distant parts of Sweden. 25-hydroxy vitamin D in serum had been measured at 6 years of age and after a 3-month intervention with 25, 10 or 2 (placebo) μg of vitamin D<subscript>3</subscript> per day. Two years later, caries and enamel defects were scored, self-reported information on e.g., oral behavior, dietary habits and intake of vitamin D supplements was collected, and innate immunity peptide LL37 levels in saliva and cariogenic mutant streptococci in tooth biofilm were analyzed. The outcome variables were caries and tooth enamel defects.

Dental status was evaluated in 85 of the 206 children in the basic intervention study. Low vitamin D levels were found in 28% at baseline compared to 11% after the intervention, and 34% reported continued intake of vitamin D supplements. Logistic regression supported a weak inverse association between vitamin D status at 6 years of age and caries 2 years later (odds ratio 0.96; p = 0.024) with minor attenuation after an adjustment for potential confounders. Multivariate projection regression confirmed that insufficient vitamin D levels correlated with caries and higher vitamin D levels correlated with being caries-free. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with saliva LL37 levels.

An association between vitamin D status and caries was supported, but it was not completely consistent. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with LL37 expression.

The basic intervention study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with register number NCT01741324 www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02347293 on November 26, 2012.

Vitamin D in saliva not correlate with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis and Healthy Individuals – Dec 2018 – with PDF

Comparing Serum and Salivary Levels of Vitamin D in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis and Healthy Individuals.
J Dent (Shiraz). 2018 Dec;19(4):295-300.
Bahramian A1, Falsafi P1, Abbasi T2, Ghanizadeh M3, Abedini M2, Kavoosi F4, Kouhsoltani M5, Noorbakhsh F6, Dabbaghi Tabriz F7, Rajaeih S8, Rezaei F9.

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most prevalent ulcerative condition of the oral mucosa. Many studies have emphasized on immunologic factors as the reason of inducing RAS; however, the exact etiologic cause of RAS has not been identified yet. Vitamin D has an endocrine function and regulatory effects on the immune system. It has potential therapeutic effects on autoimmune diseases, psoriasis, and neoplasms. Vitamin D deficiency has been detected in some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arteritis.

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare the serum and salivary levels of vitamin D in patients with RAS and healthy individuals.

In this cross sectional study, patients with RAS, referring to the Department of Oral Medicine, Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were evaluated after taking medical history, clinical examinations, and completing an informed consent form. The serum and salivary vitamin D levels were compared between case (n=26) and control (n=26) groups.

The mean serum vitamin D levels in the case and control groups were 33.0.7±12.41 and 50.89±9.30 (ng/dL), respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). On the other hand, the mean salivary vitamin D levels in the case and control groups were 17.36± 8.01 and 20.79±6.31 (ng/dL), respectively, with no statistically significant difference (p= 0.09). In addition, the correlation between the serum and salivary levels of vitamin D was 56%, being statistically significant (p< 0.001).

The serum levels of vitamin D in patients with RAS were significantly less than that in healthy individuals; however, there were no significant differences in salivary vitamin D levels between patients with RAS and healthy individuals. In addition, there was a significant and positive correlation between serum and salivary levels of vitamin D in all patients.

No correlation between Vitamin D levels in saliva and blood – Jan 1987 free PDF online

Studies on the measurement of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in human saliva
Br J Nutr. 1987 Jan;57(1):13-25. PMID: 3801379
Fairney A, Saphier PW.

A competitive protein-binding assay for 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) in saliva has been established by adaptation of that previously described for 25-OHD in serum (Fairney et al. 1979). Random values of salivary 25-OHD in patients attending hospital for venesection showed a wide range of results (105-1000 pg/ml, n 55). These values corresponded to 1.2% of the total serum values with which they showed a significant relation (r 0.45, P less than 0.001). There was no relation between salivary 25-OHD and measured serum free 25-OHD in eighteen pairs of saliva and serum studied. Studies in two individuals showed that salivary 25-OHD values varied throughout the day and that a vitamin D load (19.5 micrograms), given as pickled herrings at lunch, produced a marked rise in 25-OHD values 5-8 h later. Diurnal profile studies of salivary 25-OHD in Caucasian and Asian 11-year-old male schoolchildren showed lower values in Asian children eating a vegetarian diet, and a significant variation with time and ethnic group (P less than 0.001). It is concluded that 25-OHD is present in saliva and that the values vary throughout the day. The values obtained may relate to dietary intake of vitamin D and the subject's ethnic origin.

Chewing increasing Vitamin D levels in saliva – Dec 2013

Overestimation of salivary 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level when using stimulated saliva with gum-chewing
Steroids. 2013 Sep;78(9):884-7. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2013.05.010. Epub 2013 May 18.
Higashi T1, Hijikuro M, Yamagata K, Ogawa S.

The measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] in whole saliva can be a noninvasive tool for assessing vitamin D status. Gum-chewing increases salivation and is often used to collect an adequate sample volume of saliva within a shorter time. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the concentration of 25(OH)D3 in whole saliva is influenced by gum-chewing.

Stimulated saliva was collected from healthy volunteers chewing a tasteless and flavorless chewing gum after unstimulated saliva was collected without gum-chewing. The salivary 25(OH)D3 and albumin concentrations were measured.

The salivary 25(OH)D3 concentration was reproducibly measured when saliva was collected without gum-chewing, whereas the concentration was significantly increased by gum-chewing (p<0.05, paired t-test). One of the causes for the gum-chewing-induced increase in the 25(OH)D3 concentration may be the increased amount of protein-bound 25(OH)D3 in whole saliva.

Stimulated saliva by gum-chewing should be used with caution in the measurement of 25(OH)D3. The protein binding rate in plasma is a significant consideration when predicting whether the salivary concentration of a compound is varied by gum-chewing.

Dried blood spot and dried saliva both used for home Vitamin D sampling – April 2015, PDF on VitaminDWiki

Feasibility of self-sampled dried blood spot and saliva samples sent by mail in a population-based study
Strangely the article does not appear to compare the results
BMC Cancer. 2015 Apr 11;15:265. doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1275-0.
Sakhi AK1,2, Bastani NE3, Ellingjord-Dale M4, Gundersen TE5, Blomhoff R6,7, Ursin G8,9,10.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population-based study of women above 50 years of age.

We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009.

Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports.

CONCLUSION: Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible alternative in epidemiological studies.

Perhaps only 8 nanomol/ml of Vitamin D in Saliva – 1983

Studies on the presence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in human saliva
Clin Chim Acta. 1983 Mar 28;129(1):19-25. PMID: 6602013
Trafford DJ, Makin HL.

Saliva collected from volunteers of both sexes at various times throughout the day was examined for the presence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The method used was a specific high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure with a minimum detectable limit for 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 0.05 microgram/1, (130 pmol/1 for 25-hydroxyvitamin D3) using 20 ml of saliva. No 25-hydroxyvitamin D could be detected in any of the samples. Examination of larger quantities of saliva (100 ml) by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a peak possibly derived from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, at a concentration not in excess of 65 pmol/l.
Using known binding characteristics of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and plasma vitamin D binding protein, and comparing them with similar characteristics for cortisol and plasma cortisol binding globulin and the known salivary concentration of cortisol, simple calculations indicated that a likely concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in saliva would be around 8 pmol/l. Previously reported values ranging from 130-4160 pmol/l (50-1600 micrograms/l) using a simple competitive protein binding assay could not be confirmed.

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Saliva and Vitamin D – many studies        
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