Population-based register study of children born in Sweden from 1997-2014 showed an increase in rickets during infancy.
Acta Paediatr. 2019 May 3. doi: 10.1111/apa.14835
Högberg U1, Winbo J2, Fellman V3,4.
- Rickets in Japan increased 3 X recently, similar to increases in other countries – June 2017
- Rickets in UK increased 4X in a decade - May 2015
- Rare Nutritional Rickets increased 10X in 20 years – Feb 2013
Overview of Rickets and vitamin D contains the following summary
Rate of rickets is usually < 0.1% of births, unless dark skin or breastfed
Rate of rickets has greatly increased with the drop in vitamin D levels during the past 40 years
400 IU can prevent/treat most rickets Turkey gave vitamin D to EVERY child and eliminated Rickets
A low serum level of vitamin D does not indicate rickets
Sometimes rickets is also associated with a poor vitamin D receptor
Giving enough Vitamin D to the mother PREVENTS Rickets
Rate of rickets in some countries varies from 10% to 70% (typically poor health overall)
Rickets has been more than doubling in many countries
Rickets is strongly associated with severe breathing problems (weak ribs)
Bowed legs is not the primary indication of rickets (3 other indications of rickets are seen more often)
Vitamin D and Rickets consensus took 80 years
AIM: This population-based study assessed the incidence of rickets in infants up to age of one born in Sweden from 1997-2014. We also examined maternal and perinatal factors and co-morbidity.
METHODS: We used Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare registers and data from Statistics Sweden. The outcome measure was an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, code for rickets.
There were 273 cases of rickets, with an incidence of 14.7 per 100,000 and a 10-fold incidence increase between 1997-2014. The majority (78.4%) were born preterm, half were small-for-gestational age (SGA) (birthweight <10th percentile), 4.8% were born to Asian-born mothers and 3.5% to African-born mothers.
The adjusted odds ratios by birth week were
- 182 (95% CI 121-272) before 32 weeks (62%)
- 10.8 (95% CI 6.72-17.4) by 32-36 weeks. (11%)
Preterm infants with necrotising enterocolitis had very high odds for rickets and so did SGA term born infants and those born to African-born mothers. The odds for rickets among preterm infants increased considerably during the later years.
Rickets increased 10-fold in Sweden from 1997-2014 and was mainly associated with prematurity, SGA and foreign-born mothers. Possible reasons may include increased preterm survival rates and improved clinical detection and registration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.