Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content
PLOS x, Published: March 25, 2016http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151876
Katiéli Caroline Welter , Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues Martins , André Soligo Vizeu de Palma , Mellory Martinson Martins , Bárbara Roqueto dos Reis , Bárbara Laís Unglaube Schmidt , Arlindo Saran Netto
To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis).
The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly
- reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, (11%)
- short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%,
- medium chain FA by 27.32%,
- saturated FA by 20.24%,
- saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%,
- omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and
- atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment.
Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an
- increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%,
- unsaturated FA by 34.08%,
- monounsaturated FA by 40.37%,
- polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%,
- milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%,
- rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%,
- oleic acid by 44.87% and
- h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment.
Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.
I would happily pay 11% more for healthier milk.
Can also increase Vitamin D content by:
2) Solanum glaucophyllum (a purple flower) produces active vitamin D3
3) UV lighting
4) in feed - example HyD
5) Add more D3 (instead of D2) to milk
See also VitaminDWiki