Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016 Apr 20. [Epub ahead of print]
Hildebrand RA1, Miller B, Warren A, Hildebrand D, Smith BJ.
1College of Health Sciences, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
Increasing evidence indicates that compromised vitamin D status, as indicated by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D), is associated with decreased muscle function. The purpose of this study was to determine the vitamin D status of collegiate athletes residing in the southern U.S. and its effects on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Collegiate athletes (n=103) from three separate NCAA athletic programs were recruited for the study. Anthropometrics, vitamin D and calcium intake, and sun exposure data were collected along with serum 25-OH D and physical performance measures (Vertical Jump Test, Shuttle Run Test, Triple Hop for Distance Test and the 1 Repetition Maximum Squat Test) to determine the influence of vitamin D status on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Approximately
- 68% of the study participants were vitamin D adequate (>75 nmol/L), whereas
- 23% were insufficient (75-50 nmol/L) and
- 9%, predominantly non-Caucasian athletes, were deficient (<50 nmol/L).
Athletes who had lower vitamin D status had reduced performance scores (P<0.01) with odds ratios of
- 0.85 on the Vertical Jump Test,
- 0.82 on the Shuttle Run Test,
- 0.28 on the Triple Hop for Distance Test, and
- 0.23 on the 1 RM Squat Test.
These findings demonstrate that even NCAA athletes living in the southern US are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may be important for these athletes to optimize their muscular strength and power.
- Sunshine is a cure for “weak and soft muscles” – 425 BC
- 4X fewer stress fractures in college athletes if more than 40 ng of vitamin D – Feb 2016
- Elite Athletes Try a New Training Tactic: More Vitamin D - WSJ Jan 2016
- The Importance of Vitamin D for Athletes - 2015
- NCAA athletes – one third had low levels of vitamin D, 19X more likely if black race – March 2015
- Sports benefits from up to 50 ng of Vitamin – meta-analysis - Nov 2012
Overview Sports and vitamin D has the following summary
Athletes are helped by vitamin D by:
- Faster reaction time
- Far fewer colds/flus during the winter
- Less sore/tired after a workout
- Fewer micro-cracks and broken bones
- Bones which do break heal much more quickly
- Increased VO2 and exercise endurance Feb 2011
- Indoor athletes especially need vitamin D
- Professional indoor athletes are starting to supplement with vitamin D or use vitamin D beds
- Olympic athletes have used UV/vitamin D since the 1930's
- The biggest gain from the use of vitamin D is by those who exercise less than 2 hours per day.
- Reduced muscle fatigue with 10,000 IU vitamin D daily
- Muscle strength improved when vitamin D added: 3 Meta-analysis
- Sports and Vitamin D category