Intern Med. 2012;51(8):845-50. Epub 2012 Apr 15.
Echida Y, Mochizuki T, Uchida K, Tsuchiya K, Nitta K.
Department of Medicine, Kidney Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Japan.
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a cohort study to identify the risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in predialyzed patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
METHODS: An observational study of 135 outpatients with stage 3-5 CKD was undertaken. Clinical and biochemical parameters were analyzed in terms of nutritional status, inflammation, and mineral metabolism in relation to serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Levels of 25(OH)D lower than 15 ng/mL were considered to be deficient.
RESULTS: The 25(OH)D-deficient group had a higher body mass index (24.1±4.2 kg/m(2) vs. 22.5±4.0 kg/m(2), p=0.0322), and had more diabetic patients (27.9% vs. 3.6%, p=0.0003).
The multivariate analysis revealed that
- body mass index (odds ratio=2.758; 95% CI, 1.048-7.721; p=0.0398), the
- presence of diabetes (odds ratio=7.792; 95% CI, 1.808-55.439; p=0.0043),
- lower hemoglobin concentration (odds ratio=0.297; 95% CI, 0.099-8.732; p=0.821),
- higher serum levels of non-HDL cholesterol (odds ratio=3.570; 95% CI, 1.449-9.442; p=0.0053) and
- triglyceride (odds ratio=2.447; 95% CI, 0.779-1.776; p=0.0258)
were the factors associated with low 25(OH)D levels.
CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency was common among the predialysis CKD patients, and the factors identified as being associated with vitamin D deficiency were diabetes and obesity.
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
- Overview Kidney and vitamin D
- All items in category Kidney and Vitamin D
- Kidney failure and vitamin D deficiency vicious cycle – Jan 2011
- Adding Vitamin decreased kidney deaths by 4x – Dec 2010
It is amazing that such excellent results were buried in the paper. They were not in the title nor abstract.
This is the result of about 10 trials with about 5,000 kidney disease patients.
Note: some of the trials were terminated as they felt it morally wrong to not give vitamin D to all of the Kidney patients
- Vitamin D Deficiency Vicious circles a portion of the chart follows
Low vitamin D ==> Diabetes ==> Kidney failure
Kidney failure ==> Low Vitamin D and poor regulation of Magnesium