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- Incidence of Macular Degeneration almost 2X higher in those with low levels of vitamin D
- Nearsightedness in 30 years increased 25% -> 43 % in whites and almost tripled from 13% -> 33.5% in blacks
- Seasonal variation of retinal detachment in Lebanon.
- Seasonal variations of retinal detachment among Arabs in Kuwait.
- Did not find seasonal variation of retinal detachment in this study in Southern Europe
- The far North had greatest retinal detachments in the summer
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perhaps related to arterial stiffness
Note: the following chart is for people who DID NOT have vitamin D supplements
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Nearsightedness in 30 years increased 25% -> 43 % in whites and almost tripled from 13% -> 33.5% in blacks
BETHESDA, Md., January 2010
Researchers examined results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of people ages 12 to 54.
The myopia incidence rate increased from 25 percent in 1971-1972 to 41.6 percent in 1999-2004.
In both time frames, the prevalence was higher in white individuals than blacks.
Myopia cases among black individuals increased from 13 percent to 33.5 percent.
Among whites, myopia prevalence increased from 26.3 percent to 43 percent.
According to the report in the December issue of Archives of Ophthalmology, the high prevalence costs Americans billions of dollars each year in vision correction.
The authors stated that identifying myopia risk factors could lead to more cost-effective strategies.
Ophthalmic Res. 2009;41(3):170-4. Epub 2009 Apr 2.
Mansour AM, Hamam RN, Sibai TA, Farah TI, Mehio-Sibai A, Kanaan M.
Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. dr.ahmad at cyberia.net.lb
BACKGROUND: The literature remains controversial regarding seasonal variation of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD).
METHODS: In this retrospective chart review, seasonal variation of RRD was examined based on the records of 211 consecutive patients operated for idiopathic RRD in one referral medical center over a 13-year period.
RESULTS: The number of eyes with RRD recorded per season was 46 in autumn, 46 in winter, 62 in spring and 57 in summer. There was a significant seasonal variation (p < 0.05) with an increase in RRD in the warm seasons (spring and summer) compared to the cold seasons (winter and autumn; 56 vs. 44%). Right eyes were more likely to be affected than left eyes (54 vs. 46%), and cases presented with a significantly younger age at onset in the warm than in the cold seasons (47 vs. 54 years, p = 0.007). A literature review of 8,533 cases including the present case series established further the seasonal variation of RRD (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: There is convincing evidence for a seasonal variation of RRD in Lebanon and in the literature. This is likely to be related to sun exposure and outdoor activities in the warm seasons. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID: 19339812
Ophthalmic Res. 1990;22(4):220-3.
Al Samarrai AR.
Eye Department, Ibn Sina Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Kuwait.
The seasonal variation in the incidence of retinal detachment over the period from 1981 to 1987 inclusive was investigated. Highly significant associations were observed between this variation and both sunshine and temperature. Hence, it is suggested that heat or cold may be important additional factors in the development of retinal detachment in an already damaged retina.
The occurrence of retinal detachment peaks over the winter months with the highest level being in the month of November, while there is a trough over the summer months. PMID: 2089340
Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and seasonal variations.
Acta Med Croatica. 2002;56(2):49-51.
Ivanisevi? M, Erceg M, Eterovi? D.
Department of Ophthalmology, Split Clinical Hospital, Public Health Institute of Split-Dalmatia County, Soltanska 1, 21000 Split, Croatia.
Seasonal variations of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) have been reported in only several studies, mostly from Central and northern Europe. In this study, seasonal incidence of RRD was determined and compared with sunlight exposure per season in the Mediterranean region of south Europe. The study was based on a retrospective review of medical records on 280 eyes of 272 consecutive hospital patients in the district of Split, Croatia, who were treated for primary nontraumatic phakic RRD over a 12-year period (1988-1999).
The number of eyes with RRD recorded per season was
79 in summer,
71 in winter,
67 in spring and
63 in autumn.
The average number of sunshine hours in Split was 1001 in summer, 698 in spring, 576 in autumn and 457 in winter.
No seasonal variations in the occurrence of RRD and no correlation with the mean duration of sunlight exposure per season were found. PMID: 12596624
Seasonal variations in retinal detachment in Northern Finland and Novosibirsk.
Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1983 Oct;61(5):806-12.
Paavola M, Chehova S, Forsius H.
Retinal detachments have a tendency to occur more commonly in spring and summer than in winter. Two new series are presented here, the first collected in Northern Finland at latitudes 64 degrees-70 degrees and the second from Novosibirsk, at a much lower latitude, 55 degrees N, but with an equally long winter. A statistically significant seasonal variation is found in both. The highest incidence peak is seen in June in Oulu and in July in Novosibirsk, the difference between the prevalence curves was, however, not statistically significant. The Oulu series shows a statistically highly significant seasonal variation in low refractive errors but no seasonal difference in high myopia and aphakia. PMID: 6659888
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