J Intern Med. 2011 Aug;22(4):355-62. Epub 2011 May 31.
Makariou S, Liberopoulos EN, Elisaf M, Challa A.
Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
Vitamin D is a steroid molecule, mainly produced in the skin that regulates the expression of a large number of genes. Until recently its main known role was to control bone metabolism and calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. During the last 2 decades it has been realized that vitamin D deficiency, which is really common worldwide, could be a new risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome and its components, the whole spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, several auto-immune conditions, and many types of cancer as well as all-cause mortality.
Except for the great number of epidemiological studies that support the above presumptions, vitamin D receptors (VDRs) have been identified in many tissues and cells. The effect of vitamin D supplementation remains controversial and the need for more persuasive study outcomes is intense.
Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
2. Vitamin D and all-cause mortality
3. Vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome
4. Vitamin D and hypertension
5. Vitamin D and glucose metabolism
6. Vitamin D and lipid metabolism
7. Vitamin D and cardiovascular effects
8. Vtamin D and heart failure
9. Vitamin D and stroke
10. Vitamin D and renal disease
11. Vitamin D and immune system effects
12. Vitamin D and cancer
13. Viamin D supplementation and safety issues