Intakes and sources of vitamin D in the US population
Jaspreet KC Ahuja, Donna Rhodes, Joseph D Goldman, Grace Omolewa-Tomobi, Randy LaComb and Alanna Moshfegh
Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, ARS, USDA, Beltsville, MD
Vitamin D critical due to its role in bone health has emerged as potentially playing an important role in other diseases. However, many knowledge gaps in the study of vitamin D exist, including knowledge of intake patterns from national surveys.
The Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Surveys 3.0 (FNDDS), based on USDA’s National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, both important components of nutrition monitoring in the U.S., were recently updated (2009) to include food composition values for vitamin D.
FNDDS was applied to food intake data from the What We Eat in America, NHANES, 2005–2006 for 8,437 males and females, ages 1 and older, to provide nationally representative estimates of intakes of vitamin D from foods.
The proportion of individuals with usual intakes above their Adequate Intake (AI) was determined using the NCI method. Food sources and major contributors of vitamin D were also determined using SAS version 9.2.
The mean (SE) intake of vitamin D was 5.0 (0.12) µg/day.
About one-third of individuals 1 year and over met their AI.
However, most individuals over 50 years, regardless of gender, did not meet the AI (15 µg/day).
Major contributors include milk and milk products (52%), fish (9%), and ready-to-eat cereals (7%).