Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013 Jan 12.
Arnson Y, Itzhaky D, Mosseri M, Barak V, Tzur B, Agmon-Levin N, Amital H.
Cardiology Division, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most common cause of cardiac injury in the Western world. Cardiac injury activates innate immune mechanisms initiating an inflammatory reaction. Inflammatory cytokines and vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM) promote adhesive interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells, resulting in the transmigration of inflammatory cells into the site of injury. Low vitamin D levels are associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher risk of MI. In this paper, we examine the effects of short-term vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory cytokine levels after an acute coronary syndrome. We recruited patients arriving to the hospital with an acute MI. All patients received optimal medical therapy and underwent a coronary catheterization.
Half of the patients were randomly selected and treated with a daily supplement of vitamin D (4,000 IU) for 5 days. A short course of treatment with vitamin D effectively attenuated the increase in circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines after an acute coronary event. Control group patients had increased cytokine and cellular adhesion molecules serum concentrations after 5 days, while the vitamin D-treated group had an attenuated elevation or a reduction of these parameters.
There were significant differences in
- VCAM-1 levels,
- C-reactive protein, and
There were trends toward significance in interleukin-8 levels. There were no significant differences in circulating levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, E-selectin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α. These findings provide information on the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D on the vascular system and suggest mechanisms that mediate some of its cardioprotective properties. There is place for further studies involving prolonged vitamin D treatment in patients suffering from ischemic heart disease.
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