Vitamin D and all-cause mortality among adults in USA: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality Study
Int. J. Epidemiol. (2011) doi: 10.1093/ije/dyq264 * Accepted December 9, 2010.
1. Earl S Ford eford at cdc.gov
2. Guixiang Zhao,
3. James Tsai and
4. Chaoyang Li
Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
Background Whether concentrations of vitamin D are related to mortality remains unresolved. Our objective was to examine the relationship between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and all-cause mortality in a national sample of US adults.
Methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Study from 2001 to 2004 with mortality compiled through 2006. Mortality status was established through a match to the National Death Index.
Results Of the 7531 participants, 347 died. Median follow-up was 3.8 years. The mean unadjusted concentrations of vitamin D were 54.1?nmol/l (21.7?ng/ml) among participants who died and 60.7?nmol/l (24.3?ng/ml) among participants who survived (P? =?0.002). After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, the hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality were 1.65 95% confidence interval (CI): 95% CI: 1.13–2.40 for participants with a concentration <50?nmol/l (<20?ng/ml) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.74–1.41) for participants with a concentration of 50 to <75?nmol/l (20 to <30?ng/ml) compared with participants who had a concentration of ?75?nmol/l (?30?ng/ml). After more extensive adjustment, the HRs were 1.28 (95% CI: 0.86–1.90) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63–1.33), respectively. The fully adjusted HR per 10?nmol/l of vitamin D was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86–1.01). The HRs did not vary by gender (P?=?0.80) or among the three major racial or ethnic groups (P?=?0.46).
Conclusions Concentrations of vitamin D were weakly and inversely related to all-cause mortality in this sample of US adults.
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66% more likely to die if vitamin D <20ng than if >30 ng
It was politically incorrect to have 66% as a conclusion. Afterall, the Institute of Medicine was soon to announce that 20ng was OK
So they took out the associations of death due to diabetes, smoking,
etc, etc, and got it down to 'only' 28% more likely to die
See also in VitaminDWiki
- All items in Mortality and Vitamin D
- Critically ill 70 percent more likely to die if vitamin D less than 15ng – Jan 2011
- 50 percent more elderly deaths when vitamin D under 18 ng or over 40 ng – Aug 2010
- Vitamin D and mortality a meta-analysis of RCT - 2008 review of 18 studies
- "There appears to be a positive association between the intake of ordinary doses of vitamin D supplements and reductions in total mortality rates."
- Vitamin D deficiency was the best predictor of older patient death in hospital – May 2010
All Cause Mortality big improvement from 15 to 27 ng - Heaney chart 2010