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Vitamin D and rheumatic diseases. – Review July 2014

Reumatismo. 2014 Jul 28;66(2):153-70. doi: 10.4081/reumatismo.2014.788.
Rossini M1, Gatti D, Viapiana O, Caimmi C, Idolazzi L, Fracassi E, Adami S.
1Rheumatology Unit, University of Verona. maurizio.rossini at univr.it.

Vitamin D has some well-known effects on calcium, phosphate and bone metabolism, but it has recently shown to have many other effects, which may potentially be relevant to patients with extra-skeletal rheumatic diseases.
Such effects may be justified by:

  • 1) the presence of the vitamin D receptors also on extra-osseous cells, such as cartilage cells, sinoviocytes, muscle cells;
  • 2) the proven role of vitamin D in the control of the transcription of genes involved in rheumatic diseases;
  • 3) the evidence that vitamin D has multiple endocrine effects not only on calcium homeostasis;
  • 4) the activation of vitamin D not only in the kidneys,
    but also in monocyte-macrophage and lymphocytic cell lines
    and in some epithelial cells with additional intracrine and paracrine effects.

Vitamin D deficiency has been reported in numerous metabolic, degenerative, inflammatory and autoimmune rheumatic diseases. In some cases this association was also related to the risk of developing a rheumatic disease or the degree of disease activity.
However there is no conclusive evidence of the efficacy of a preventive or therapeutic strategy based on vitamin D supplementation in extra-skeletal rheumatic diseases. This review aims to provide an overview of the latest evidence concerning the relationship between vitamin D and the most relevant rheumatic diseases.

PMID: 25069497

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