Toggle Health Problems and D

Tic disorder reduced by Vitamin D supplementation – Aug 2019

Clinical improvement following vitamin D3 supplementation in children with chronic tic disorders

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S212322
Authors Li HH, Xu ZD, Wang B, Feng JY, Dong HY, Jia FY


Tic disorder in 2-3% of children – 3X more often in boys
Tic disorder associated with OCD and ADHD
Gave Vitamin D 300 IU/kd/day for 3 months (5,000 IU max
Note below: Some Vitamin D disease treatments successfully give 3X more = 1000 IU/kg/day



 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Tic disorder vs Vitamin D level (before supplementation)

Purpose: Vitamin D deficiency has been found in children with chronic tic disorders (CTDs). Our previous data showed that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level in children with CTDs was lower than that of the healthy controls and lower serum 25(OH)D level was associated with increased severity of the tic disorder. Thus, we intend to further verify this phenomenon and examine the effect of vitamin D3 on CTDs.

Patients and methods: In total, 120 children with CTDs and 140 normal controls were enrolled in this study, with 36/120 of those in the CTD group receiving vitamin D3 treatment for 3 months. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) and Clinical Global Impression of Severity of Illness (CGI-SI) were, respectively, used to evaluate the tic severity. High-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry were used to measure serum 25(OH)D level.

Results: Those children with CTDs exhibited significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than did healthy controls, and these reduced 25(OH)D levels were linked to increasing severity of tic symptoms. After treatment with supplemental vitamin D3, serum 25(OH)D level and scores of YGTSS total, motor tics, phonic tics, total tic, impairment, and CGI-SI improved significantly in children with CTDs without any adverse reactions.

Conclusion: Supplementation vitamin D3, given its low cost and excellent safety, may be an effective means of improving symptoms in certain children with CTDs.


  • 1. Sanger TD, Chen D, Fehlings DL, et al. Definition and classification of hyperkinetic movements in childhood. Mov Disord. 2010;25(11):1538–1549. doi:10.1002/mds.23088
  • 2. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnosic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013:81–85.
  • 3. Knight T, Steeves T, Day L, Lowerison M, Jette N, Pringsheim T. Prevalence of tic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Neurol. 2012;47(2):77–90. doi:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2012.05.002
  • 4. Yang C, Zhang L, Zhu P, Zhu C, Guo Q. The prevalence of tic disorders for children in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(30):e4354. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000004864
  • 5. Eapen V, Robertson MM. Are there distinct subtypes in Tourette syndrome? Pure-Tourette syndrome versus Tourette syndrome-plus, and simple versus complex tics. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015;11:1431–1436. doi:10.2147/NDT.S72284
  • 6. Lebowitz ER, Motlagh MG, Katsovich L, et al. Tourette syndrome in youth with and without obsessive compulsive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;21(8):451–457. doi:10.1007/s00787-012-0278-5
  • 7. Yael D, Vinner E, Bar-Gad I. Pathophysiology of tic disorders. Mov Disord. 2015;30(9):1171–1178. doi:10.1002/mds.26304
  • 8. Cannell JJ, Grant WB. What is the role of vitamin D in autism? Dermatoendocrinol. 2013;5(1):199–204. doi:10.4161/derm.24356
  • 9. Liu Y, Li YW, Tang YL, et al. Vitamin D: preventive and therapeutic potential in parkinson’s disease. Curr Drug Metab. 2013;14(9):989–993.
  • 10. Cui X, Pertile R, Liu P, Eyles DW. Vitamin D regulates tyrosine hydroxylase expression: N-cadherin a possible mediator. Neuroscience. 2015;304:90–100. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.07.048
  • 11. Pertile RA, Cui X, Eyles DW. Vitamin D signaling and the differentiation of developing dopamine systems. Neuroscience. 2016;333:193–203. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.07.020
  • 12. Li HH, Wang B, Shan L, Wang CX, Jia FY. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in children with tic disorders. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2017;19(11):1165–1168.
  • 13. Li HH, Shan L, Wang B, Du L, Xu ZD, Jia FY. Serum 25-hyroxyvitamin d levels and tic severity in Chinese children with tic disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2018;267:80–84. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.066
  • 14. Stagi S, Lepri G, Rigante D, Matucci CM, Falcini F. Cross-sectional evaluation of plasma vitamin D levels in a large cohort of Italian Patients with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2018;28(2):124–129. doi:10.1089/cap.2016.0159
  • 15. Anglin RE, Samaan Z, Walter SD, McDonald SD. Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202:100–107. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.106666
  • 16. Berridge MJ. Vitamin D deficiency. infertility and neurodevelopmental diseases (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and schizophrenia). Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2018;314(2):C135–C151. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00188.2017
  • 17. Khoshbakht Y, Bidaki R, Salehiabargouei A. Vitamin D status and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Adv Nutr. 2018;9(1):9–20. doi:10.1093/advances/nmx002
  • 18. Saad K, Abdel-Rahman AA, Elserogy YM, et al. Vitamin D status in autism spectrum disorders and the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in autistic children. Nutr Neurosci. 2016;19(8):346–351. doi:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000019
  • 19. Li H, Zong XN, Ji CY, Mi J. Body mass index cut-offs for overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2010;31(6):616–620.
  • 20. Shaffer D, Fisher P, Lucas CP, Dulcan MK, Schwab-Stone ME. NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version Ⅳ(NIMHDISC- Ⅳ): description,differencesfrom previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000;39(1):28–38. doi:10.1097/00004583-200001000-00014
  • 21. Canadian Paediatric Society. Vitamin D supplementation: recommendations for Canadian mothers and infants. Paediatr Child Health. 2007;12(7):583–598.
  • 22. Webb AR, Pilbeam C, Hanafin N, Holick MF. An evaluation of the relative contributions of exposure to sunlight and of diet to the circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in an elderly nursing home population in Boston. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51(6):1075–1081. doi:10.1093/ajcn/51.6.1075
  • 23. Leckman JF, Riddle MA, Hardin MT, et al. The Yale Global tic Severity Scale: initial testing of a clinician-rated scale of tic severity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1989;28(4):566–573. doi:10.1097/00004583-198907000-00015
  • 24. Dunlop BW, Gray J, Rapaport MH. Transdiagnostic clinical global impression scoring for routine clinical settings. Behav Sci (Basel). 2017;7(4):pii E40. doi:10.3390/bs7030040
  • 25. Cannell JJ. Autism and vitamin D. Med Hypotheses. 2008;70(4):750–759. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2007.08.016
  • 26. Muscogiuri G, Altieri B, Annweiler C, et al. Vitamin D and chronic diseases: the current state of the art. Arch Toxicol. 2017;91(1):97–107. doi:10.1007/s00204-016-1804-x
  • 27. Buse J, Schoenefeld K, Münchau A, Roessner V. Neuromodulation in tourette syndrome: dopamine and beyond. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(6):1069–1084. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.10.004
  • 28. Müller-Vahl KR, Loeber G, Kotsiari A, Müller-Engling L, Frieling H. Gilles de la tourette syndrome is associated with hypermethylation of the dopamine D2 receptor gene. J Psychiatr Res. 2016;86:1–8. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.11.004
  • 29. Eyles DW, Smith S, Kinobe R, Hewison M, Mcgrath JJ. Distribution of the vitamin D receptor and 1 alpha-hydroxylase in human brain. J Chem Neuroanat. 2005;29(1):21–30. doi:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2004.08.006
  • 30. Cui X, Pelekanos M, Liu PY, Burne TH, McGrath JJ, Eyles DW. The vitamin D receptor in dopamine neurons; its presence in human substantia nigra and its ontogenesis in rat midbrain. Neuroscience. 2013;236:77–87. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.01.035
  • 31. Jiang P, Zhang LH, Cai HL, et al. Neurochemical effects of chronic administration of calcitriol in rats. Nutrients. 2014;6(12):6048–6059. doi:10.3390/nu6126048
  • 32. Hawes JE, Tesic D, Whitehouse AJ, Zosky GR, Smith JT, Wyrwoll CS. Maternal vitamin D deficiency alters fetal brain development in the BALB/c mouse. Behav Brain Res. 2015;286:192–200. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.03.008
  • 33. Brown J, Bianco JI, Mcgrath JJ, Eyles DW. 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces nerve growth factor, promotes neurite outgrowth and inhibits mitosis in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2003;343(2):139–143. doi:10.1016/s0304-3940(03)00303-3
  • 34. Pertile RAN, Cui X, Hammond L, Eyles DW. Vitamin D regulation of GDNF/Ret signaling in dopaminergic neurons. FASEB J. 2018;32(2):819–828. doi:10.1096/fj.201700713R
  • 35. Lerner A, Bagic A, Simmons JM, et al. Widespread abnormality of the γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette syndrome. Brain. 2012;135(pt 6):1926–1936. doi:10.1093/brain/aws104
  • 36. Bronfeld M, Yael D, Belelovsky K, Bar-Gad I. Motor tics evoked by striatal disinhibition in the rat. Front Syst Neurosci. 2013;7:50. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2013.00039
  • 37. Gittis AH, Leventhal DK, Fensterheim BA, Pettibone JR, Berke JD, Kreitzer AC. Selective inhibition of striatal fast-spiking interneurons causes dyskinesias. J Neurosci. 2011;31(44):15727–15731. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3875-11.2011
  • 38. Garcion E, Wion-Barbot N, Montero-Menei CN, Berger F, Wion D. New clues about vitamin D functions in the nervous system. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2002;13(3):100–105.
  • 39. Byrne JH, Voogt M, Turner KM, Eyles DW, McGrath JJ, Burne TH. The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behavior and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e71593. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071593
  • 40. Groves NJ, Kesby JP, Eyles DW, Mcgrath JJ, Mackay-Sim A, Burne TH. Adult vitamin D deficiency leads to behavioural and brain neurochemical alterations in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. Behav Brain Res. 2013;241:120–131. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.12.001
  • 41. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, et al. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > or =60 y. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(3):752–758. doi:10.1093/ajcn/80.3.752
  • 42. Heaney RP, Dowell MS, Hale CA, Bendich A. Calcium absorption varies within the reference range for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003;22(2):142–146.
  • 43. Cannell JJ, Hollis BW. Use of vitamin D in clinical practice. Altern Med Rev. 2008;13(1):6–20.
  • 44. Eyles DW, Burne TH, Mcgrath JJ. Vitamin effects on brain development, adult brain function and the links between low levels of vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disease. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2013;34(1):47–64. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2012.07.001
  • 45. Groves NJ, Burne TH. The impact of vitamin D deficiency on neurogenesis in the adult brain. Neural Regen Res. 2017;12(3):393–394. doi:10.4103/1673-5374.202936

Created by admin. Last Modification: Wednesday April 14, 2021 15:35:09 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 12)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
12547 Malacard tic.jpg admin 26 Aug, 2019 90.32 Kb 3216
12546 Tourette syndrome.jpg admin 26 Aug, 2019 18.85 Kb 8164
12545 Tic supplementation.jpg admin 26 Aug, 2019 112.28 Kb 3255
12544 tic scores.jpg admin 26 Aug, 2019 33.19 Kb 3123
12543 Tic disorder.pdf admin 26 Aug, 2019 724.75 Kb 649