Depressed adolescents in a case-series were low in vitamin D and depression was ameliorated by vitamin D supplementation
Acta Paediatrica Vol. 101 Issue 3
Göran Högberg 1,2, gor.hogberg at gmail.com
Sven A. Gustafsson 3,
Tore Hällström 4,5,
Tove Gustafsson 6,
Björn Klawitter 2,
Maria Petersson 6
1 Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit, Astrid Lindgren Children?s Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
2 Stockholm Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stockholm, BUP Huddinge Stockholm,Sweden
3 Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Clinical Chemistry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
4 Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section for Psychiatry, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
5 Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, Section of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Unit for Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
6 Departement of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm,Sweden
Aim:? The relationship between depression in adolescents and vitamin D was studied in a case-series which included effects of vitamin D supplementation.
Methods:? Serum 25OH vitamin D (25OHD) levels in 54 Swedish depressed adolescents were investigated.
Subjects with vitamin D deficiency were given vitamin D3 over three months (n=48).
To evaluate well-being and symptoms related to depression and vitamin D status the WHO-5 well-being scale,
The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-S), and a vitamin D deficiency scale were used.
Results:? Mean serum 25OHD in the depressed adolescents was 41 at baseline and 91 nmol/L (p<0.001) after supplementation.
Basal 25OHD levels correlated positively to well-being (p<0.05).
After vitamin D supplementation
- well-being increased (p<0.001)
and there was a significant improvement in seven of the nine items in the vitamin D deficiency scale; in
- depressed feeling (p<0.001),
- irritability (p<0.05), (p<0.001),
- tiredness (p<0.001),
- mood swings (p<0.01),
- sleep difficulties (p<0.01),
- weakness (p<0.05),
- ability to concentrate (p<0.05) and
- pain (p<0.05).
There was a significant amelioration of depression according to the MFQ-S (p<0.05)
Conclusion:? This study showed low levels of vitamin D in 54 depressed adolescents, positive correlation between vitamin D and well-being,
and improved symptoms related to depression and vitamin D deficiency after vitamin D supplementation.
© 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Pædiatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica
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89% of the depressed teens in the study were actually vitamin D deficient ( 48 / 54)
Before = 16 nanograms
4,000 IU vitamin D daily for 1 month, then 2,000 IU daily for next 2 months (update by author Feb 29, 2012)
After = 36 nanograms
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