Effect of Hypovitaminosis D on Postoperative Pain Outcomes and Short-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After Knee Arthroplasty: A Cohort Study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Oct;94(42):e1812.
Lee A1, Chan SK, Samy W, Chiu CH, Gin T.
1Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.
Vitamin D may have an important role in pain perception. Inadequate vitamin D levels are associated with suboptimal recovery after surgery. However, the effects of hypovitaminosis D on postoperative pain-related outcomes and its impact on health-related quality of life after surgery are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hypovitaminosis D on postoperative pain-related outcomes and health-related quality of life at 3 months after knee arthroplasty.This was a longitudinal cohort study of 191 consecutive Hong Kong Chinese patients who were given patient-controlled morphine analgesia for up to 72 hours after 214 knee arthroplasties. Serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration was assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The primary outcomes were postoperative pain intensity at rest scores (0-72 h), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index (pain, stiffness and function), and moderate-to-severe persistent pain (transformed WOMAC pain score of 0-75 at 3 months after knee arthroplasty; 0, extreme pain; 100, no pain). Group differences were analyzed using generalized estimating equation models and a logistic regression model.The prevalence of preoperative hypovitaminosis D (25-OHD <50 nmol/L) was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37%-51%). There were transient higher pain intensity scores in the moderate-to-severe hypovitaminosis D (25-OHD <30 nmol/L) group compared with the sufficient vitamin D group. Vitamin D status had no effect on total WOMAC index (P = 0.22). The incidence of moderate-to-severe persistent pain was 9% (95% CI: 6%-14%). Hypovitaminosis D increased the risk of moderate-to-severe persistent pain (adjusted odds ratio 2.64, 95% CI: 1.03-6.77).Preoperative hypovitaminosis D had subtle effects on pain intensity scores in the early postoperative period and is a risk factor for moderate-to-severe persistent pain after knee arthroplasty. Hypovitaminosis D was not associated with worse health-related quality of life at 3 months after knee arthroplasty.
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