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Kawasaki Disease and Vitamin D - several studies


4+ VitaminDWiki pages have KAWASAKI in the title

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The effect of vitamin D status on the occurrence of Kawasaki Disease: a meta-analysis - April 2024

BMC Pediatrics volume 24, Article number: 287 (2024)
Haixiang Zhang, Fuyong Jiao, Jiaojiao Wang, Cuixiang Xu & Kejin Zhang

Aim: The relationship between vitamin D status and Kawasaki Disease (KD), as well as coronary artery lesion (CAL), has yet to be established.

Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the correlation between vitamin D status and KD, as well as the impact of vitamin D status on the progression of KD into CAL.

Results: The meta-analysis revealed a consistent and significant association between serum 25(OH)D level and the occurrence KD (studies N = 22; z = -3.51, P < 0.001). Patients with KD had markedly lower levels of vitamin D than healthy controls (SMD: -1.30 ng/mL, 95%CI: -2.05 to -0.55 ng/mL).

Conclusion: The study provided evidence supporting a significant association between lower serum vitamin D levels and the occurrence of KD, particularly within the Chinese population. However, the findings did not suggest a direct impact of vitamin D on the development of CAL in KD patients.
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Kawasaki Disease described by Perplexity AI - May 2024

Kawasaki disease, also known as Kawasaki syndrome, is an acute febrile illness primarily affecting children younger than 5 years of age. The cause of Kawasaki disease remains unknown, but it is characterized by inflammation in the walls of small to medium-sized blood vessels throughout the body, most notably affecting the heart arteries. This disease is not contagious and is thought to possibly be related to an infection, particularly in children who may have a genetic predisposition to it 2.

Symptoms
Children with Kawasaki disease exhibit a range of symptoms, which may not all occur simultaneously. The hallmark symptom is a high fever lasting for at least five days. Other primary symptoms include:

  • Swollen hands and feet with skin peeling
  • Red eyes without a thick discharge
  • Red, dry, cracked lips and a red, swollen tongue often referred to as "strawberry tongue"
  • A rash, often on the back, chest, and groin area
  • Swollen, red skin on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, which may later peel
  • An enlarged lymph node in the neck
  • Irritability, especially in younger patients 3 4.

Some children may experience what's called incomplete Kawasaki disease, where they have a fever and fewer than four of the other primary symptoms but are still at risk of heart artery damage and require treatment 4.

Diagnosis
There is no single test for diagnosing Kawasaki disease. Diagnosis is based on the presence of the fever along with four or more of the primary symptoms. Laboratory tests may help in the diagnosis by looking for signs of inflammation, recent strep or viral infections, and the body’s immune response. An echocardiogram (ultrasound of the heart) is also commonly performed to assess any impact on the heart 2.

Complications
The most significant complications of Kawasaki disease involve the heart, including coronary artery aneurysms (or ballooning of the arteries), leakage of heart valves, and accumulation of fluid around the heart. Without timely and appropriate treatment, up to 25% of children with Kawasaki disease may develop heart complications. However, with proper treatment, the risk of coronary artery involvement decreases to around 5% 2.

Treatment
Early treatment is crucial in Kawasaki disease to reduce the risk of complications. The standard treatment involves high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin to reduce inflammation and fever. This treatment has been shown to significantly decrease the development of coronary artery abnormalities 5 6.

Epidemiology
Kawasaki disease is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries. It occurs worldwide, with the highest incidence in Japan. The disease is more common in boys than girls and is most often seen in children under 5 years old, with a peak incidence in those less than 2 years old. Kawasaki disease tends to occur more frequently in the winter and spring months 1 2.In summary, Kawasaki disease is a serious but treatable condition that primarily affects young children. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent heart complications and ensure a better outcome for affected children.

Kawasaki disease images from Perplexity

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Kawasaki Disease and Vitamin D - several studies        
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ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
21148 KD body.webp admin 01 May, 2024 11.34 Kb 14
21147 Signs KD.webp admin 01 May, 2024 20.18 Kb 16
21146 KD Meta_CompressPdf.pdf admin 01 May, 2024 345.86 Kb 6