Nutrition Research Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 48-54 (January 2011)
Kimberly Y.Z. ForrestCorresponding Author Informationemail address, Wendy L. Stuhldreher
Department of Public Health & Social Work, Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania, Slippery Rock, PA 16057
Mounting evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency could be linked to several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its correlates to test the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency was common in the US population, especially in certain minority groups. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2006 data were analyzed for vitamin D levels in adult participants (N = 4495). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations ?20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L).
The overall prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency was 41.6%, with the highest rate seen in blacks (82.1%), followed by Hispanics (69.2%). Vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common among those who had no college education, were obese, with a poor health status, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, or not consuming milk daily (all P < .001).
- being from a non-white race,
- not college educated,
- having low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,
- poor health, and
- no daily milk consumption
In summary, vitamin D deficiency was common in the US population, especially among blacks and Hispanics. Given that vitamin D deficiency is linked to some of the important risk factors of leading causes of death in the United States, it is important that health professionals are aware of this connection and offer dietary and other intervention strategies to correct vitamin D deficiency, especially in minority groups.
- - - - - - - - -
- Overview Deficiency of vitamin D
- 13 percent decrease in vitamin D levels over 13 years – corrected NHANES Feb 2012 lots of details
- All items in category Deficiency of vitamin D 185 items Feb 2012
- Review of Vitamin D Deficiencies in developing countries - Oct 2011
- All items in Far From Equator 105 items Feb 2012
- World Wide Vitamin D levels - Aug 2011
- Many reasons why vitamin D deficiency has become epidemic
- Medical Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency
- How you might double the benefit of your vitamin D
- Ways to increase the amount of vitamin D you get from the sun
- Reasons for low response by vitamin D level in the blood
- Smog, cloudy, live in city
- Gut problems
- Liver problems
- Depression (older than 19)
- Lack of Magnesium (no monitoriing of supplements nor blood testing)
- No monitoring of vitamin D nor co-factors supplementation
- Was person gestated in a sunny climate (probably not as efficient at making vitamin D from the sun)
- Extreme latitude . . .