Vitamin D to prevent exacerbations of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials
Thorax 2019;74:337-345 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-212092
David A Jolliffe1, Lauren Greenberg1, Richard L Hooper1, Carolien Mathyssen2, Rachida Rafiq3, Renate T de Jongh3, Carlos A Camargo4, Christopher J Griffiths1,5, Wim Janssens2, Adrian R Martineau1,5
Background Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D to prevent COPD exacerbations have yielded conflicting results.
Individual participant data meta-analysis could identify factors that explain this variation.
Methods PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science were searched from inception up to and including 5 October 2017 to identify RCTs of vitamin D supplementation in patients with COPD that reported incidence of acute exacerbations. Individual participant data meta-analysis was performed using fixed effects models adjusting for age, sex, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease spirometric grade and trial.
Results Four eligible RCTs (total 560 participants) were identified; individual participant data were obtained for 469/472 (99.4%) participants in three RCTs. Supplementation did not influence overall rate of moderate/severe COPD exacerbations (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.13). Prespecified subgroup analysis revealed that protective effects were seen in participants with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <25 nmol/L (aIRR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.84) but not in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels ≥25 nmol/L (aIRR 1.04, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.27; p for interaction=0.015). Vitamin D did not influence the proportion of participants experiencing at least one serious adverse event (adjusted OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.75).
Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation safely and substantially reduced the rate of moderate/severe COPD exacerbations in patients with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <25 nmol/L but not in those with higher levels.
Trial registration number CRD42014013953.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the severity of COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease » Volume 10 » Issue 1 pg 1907—1916, DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S89763
Biyuan Zhu,1,* Biqing Zhu,2,* Chaolie Xiao,3 Zhiwen Zheng1
1The Fifth Internal Medicine Department, 2 Department of Laboratory Medicine, 3Department of Intensive Care Unit, Dongguan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Dongguan City, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Purpose: To explore the association between host serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the susceptibility and severity of COPD.
Methods: Previous studies on the association between host 25(OH)D and the susceptibility and severity of COPD were collected on the basis of a systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science up to June 2015. Continuous variable data were presented as standard mean difference (SMD) or weighted mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI). The dichotomous variable data were analyzed as relative ratio (RR) or odds ratio with 95% CI for cohort and case-control studies. A systematic review was conducted to understand the curative and side effects of vitamin D intake.
Results: A total of 18 studies including eight cohort, five case-control, and five randomized studies met the inclusion criteria. The serum level of 25(OH)D in COPD patients was comparable with controls with a pooled SMD of 0.191 (95% CI: -0.126 to 0.508, P=0.237) based on pooled analyses of cohort studies. However, the serum level of 25(OH)D in COPD patients was lower with a pooled SMD of 0.961 (95% CI: 0.476–1.446, P<0.001) compared with controls based on pooled analyses of case-control studies. The deficiency rates of 25(OH)D were comparable between controls and COPD patients with a pooled RR of 0.955 (95% CI: 0.754–1.211, P=0.705) based on analyses of cohort studies, and the same results were observed based on pooled analyses of case-control studies. Interestingly, the deficiency rate of 25(OH)D was significantly lower in moderate or severe COPD patients with a pooled RR of 0.723 (95% CI: 0.632–0.828, P<0.001) compared with that in mild COPD patients. The same results were obtained from the pooled analysis between moderate and severe COPD patients. The four randomized studies showed that vitamin D intake provided benefit for COPD patients.
Conclusion: Low serum levels of 25(OH)D were not associated with COPD susceptibility, but the high deficiency rate of 25(OH)D was associated with COPD severity. Vitamin D supplementation may prevent COPD exacerbation.
- COPD with obstruction: Death 1.7 X more likely with low vitamin D – Sept 2018
- COPD increases risk of bone fracture by 4.7 X (low vitamin D) – Dec 2019
- Overview COPD and Vitamin D
- which has a chart on recent increases in COPD death rate