Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in white children aged 4–8 y: a randomized, controlled, dose-response trial
Am J Clin Nutr, First published October 12, 2016, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.136697
Charlotte Mortensen3,4,9, cmo at nexs.ku.dk, Camilla T Damsgaard3,9, Hanne Hauger3, Christian Ritz3, Susan A Lanham-New5, Taryn J Smith5, Áine Hennessy6, Kirsten Dowling6, Kevin D Cashman6,7, Mairead Kiely6,8, and Christian Mølgaard3
3Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark;
4Department of Nutrition and Midwifery, Faculty of Health and Technology, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark;
5Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Surrey, United Kingdom;
6Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences,
7Department of Medicine, and
8Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
Most of the world considers the target level to be 30 nanograms
Many researchers believe the target should be 40 or 50 nanograms
- Infant-Child category listing has
540 items along with related searches
- Fewer infants were vitamin D deficient when they got 800 IU – RCT Feb 2014
- 1600 IU was the conclusion of three JAMA studies
1000 IU recommended in France and Finland – 2013 - appears to be a good level
A recommended level may be agreed upon around the world by 2020
- Many US kids have less than 40 ng of Vitamin D – 99 out of 100 blacks, 91 out of 100 whites – Jan 2017
- 83 percent of children had less than 20 ng of vitamin D – 15 ng avg for hispanic – Aug 2012
Background: Children in northern latitudes are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency during winter because of negligible dermal vitamin D3 production. However, to our knowledge, the dietary requirement for maintaining the nutritional adequacy of vitamin D in young children has not been investigated.
Objective: We aimed to establish the distribution of vitamin D intakes required to maintain winter serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations above the proposed cutoffs (25, 30, 40, and 50 nmol/L) in white Danish children aged 4–8 y living at 55°N.
Design: In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial 119 children (mean age: 6.7 y) were assigned to 0 (placebo), 10, or 20 µg vitamin D3/d supplementation for 20 wk. We measured anthropometry, dietary vitamin D, and serum 25(OH)D with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and endpoint.
Results: The mean ± SD baseline serum 25(OH)D was 56.7 ± 12.3 nmol/L (range: 28.7–101.4 nmol/L). Serum 25(OH)D increased by a mean ± SE of 4.9 ± 1.3 and 17.7 ± 1.8 nmol/L in the groups receiving 10 and 20 µg vitamin D3/d, respectively, and decreased by 24.1 ± 1.2 nmol/L in the placebo group (P < 0.001). A nonlinear model of serum 25(OH)D as a function of total vitamin D intake (diet and supplements) was fit to the data. The estimated vitamin D intakes required to maintain winter serum 25(OH)D >30 (avoiding deficiency) and >50 nmol/L (ensuring adequacy) in 97.5% of participants were 8.3 and 19.5 µg/d, respectively, and 4.4 µg/d was required to maintain serum 25(OH)D >40 nmol/L in 50% of participants.
Conclusions: Vitamin D intakes between 8 and 20 µg/d are required by white 4–8-y-olds during winter in northern latitudes to maintain serum 25(OH)D >30–50 nmol/L depending on chosen serum 25(OH)D threshold. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02145195.