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Vitamin C is important for the common cold and much else

A doctor got me interested in re-looking at vitamin C in Jan 2013
In his practice he increases all patients to 80 ng of vitamin D and makes sure that they have a high level of Magnesium and Vitamin C.
He found that some people need as much as 12 grams per day to get the right levels in their blood

Similarity noticed of the delay in acceptance of Vitamin C and Vitamin D

  • 1497 Portuguese found that Citrus cured scurvy
  • 1747 Scottish physician conduction trial to prove it
  • 1799 - after 50 deay delay - Lemons juice on all Royal Navy ships on foreign service
  • 1860 British substituted Lime juice (more acidic but less Vitamin C) for Lemon juice - did not work as well
  • 1870's citrus connection was discredited
  • 1932 suvey finally cured - Vitamin C identified in citrus
    Dates are from Life Extension Magazine, Oct 2016

Hopefully the acceptance of importance of Vitamin D will not take 400 years

See also VitaminDWiki

A combination of high-dose vitamin C plus zinc for the common cold.

J Int Med Res. 2012;40(1):28-42.
Maggini S, Beveridge S, Suter M.
Bayer Consumer Care Ltd, Peter-Merian-Strasse 84, Postbox 4002, Basel, Switzerland. silvia.maggini at bayer.com

Vitamin C and zinc play important roles in nutrition, immune defence and maintenance of health. Intake of both is often inadequate, even in affluent populations. The common cold continues to place a great burden on society in terms of suffering and economic loss. After an overview of the literature on the effects of the separate administration of either vitamin C or zinc against the common cold, this article presents data from two preliminary, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials, conducted with a combination of 1000 mg vitamin C plus 10 mg zinc in patients with the common cold.
In both studies, a nonsignificant reduction of rhinorrhoea duration (range 9-27%) was seen. In pooled analyses of both studies (n=94), vitamin C plus zinc was significantly more efficient than placebo at reducing rhinorrhoea over 5 days of treatment. Furthermore, symptom relief was quicker and the product was well tolerated. In view of the burden associated with the common cold, supplementation with vitamin C plus zinc may represent an efficacious measure, with a good safety profile, against this infectious viral disease.

PMID: 22429343

Vitamin C: a concentration-function approach yields pharmacology and therapeutic discoveries

Adv. Nut March 2011
Levine M, Padayatty SJ, Espey MG.
Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, Digestive Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1372, USA. MarkL at mail.nih.gov.

A concentration-function approach to vitamin C (ascorbate) has yielded new physiology and pharmacology discoveries. To determine the range of vitamin C concentrations possible in humans, pharmacokinetics studies were conducted.

They showed that when vitamin C is ingested by mouth, plasma and tissue concentrations are tightly controlled by at least 3 mechanisms in healthy humans:

  1. absorption,
  2. tissue accumulation, and
  3. renal reabsorption.
  4. A 4th mechanism, rate of utilization, may be important in disease.

With ingested amounts found in foods, vitamin C plasma concentrations do not exceed 100 μmol/L. Even with supplementation approaching maximally tolerated doses, ascorbate plasma concentrations are always <250 μmol/L and frequently <150 μmol/L.
By contrast, when ascorbate is i.v. injected, tight control is bypassed until excess ascorbate is eliminated by glomerular filtration and renal excretion. With i.v. infusion, pharmacologic ascorbate concentrations of 25-30 mmol/L are safely achieved. Pharmacologic ascorbate can act as a pro-drug for hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) formation, which can lead to extracellular fluid at concentrations as high as 200 μmol/L. Pharmacologic ascorbate can elicit cytotoxicity toward cancer cells and slow the growth of tumors in experimental murine models. The effects of pharmacologic ascorbate should be further studied in diseases, such as cancer and infections, which may respond to generation of reactive oxygen species via H(2)O(2).

PDF is attached at the bottom of this page

Vitamin C: update on physiology and pharmacology

Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Aug;157(7):1097-110. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00282.x. Epub 2009 Jun 5.
Mandl J, Szarka A, Bánhegyi G.
Department of Medical Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Patobiochemistry, Semmelweis University Budapest, Budapest, Hungary. mandl at puskin.sote.hu

Although ascorbic acid is an important water-soluble antioxidant and enzyme cofactor in plants and animals, humans and some other species do not synthesize ascorbate due to the lack of the enzyme catalyzing the final step of the biosynthetic pathway, and for them it has become a vitamin. This review focuses on the role of ascorbate in various hydroxylation reactions and in the redox homeostasis of subcellular compartments including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Recently discovered functions of ascorbate in nucleic acid and histone dealkylation and proteoglycan deglycanation are also summarized. These new findings might delineate a role for ascorbate in the modulation of both pro- and anti-carcinogenic mechanisms. Recent advances and perspectives in therapeutic applications are also reviewed. On the basis of new and earlier observations, the advantages of the lost ability to synthesize ascorbate are pondered. The increasing knowledge of the functions of ascorbate and of its molecular sites of action can mechanistically substantiate a place for ascorbate in the treatment of various diseases.

PDF is attached at the bottom of this page

High-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer.

Anticancer Res. 2009 Mar;29(3):809-15.
Ohno S, Ohno Y, Suzuki N, Soma G, Inoue M.
Department of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Clinical R&D, Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640, Japan. satoshio at med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ascorbate) has a controversial history in cancer treatment. Emerging evidence indicates that ascorbate in cancer treatment deserves re-examination. As research results concerning ascorbate pharmacokinetics and its mechanisms of action against tumor cells have been published, and as evidence from case studies has continued to mount that ascorbate therapy could be effective if the right protocols were used, interest among physicians and scientists has increased. In this review, high-dose vitamin C therapy in cancer treatment is re-evaluated.

PMID: 19414313
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page

Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on inflammation in cancer patients.

J Transl Med. 2012 Sep 11;10:189. doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-10-189.
Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on inflammation in cancer patients.
Mikirova N, Casciari J, Rogers A, Taylor P.
Riordan Clinic, 3100 North Hillside, Wichita, KS, USA. nmikirova at riordanclinic.org

BACKGROUND: An inflammatory component is present in the microenvironment of most neoplastic tissues. Inflammation and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival in many types of cancer.Vitamin C has been suggested as having both a preventative and therapeutic role in a number of pathologies when administered at much higher-than-recommended dietary allowance levels.Since in vitro studies demonstrated inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways by millimolar concentrations of vitamin C, we decided to analyze the effects of high dose IVC therapy in suppression of inflammation in cancer patients.

METHODS: 45 patients with prostate cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, skin cancer and B-cell lymphoma were treated at the Riordan Clinic by high doses of vitamin C (7.5 g -50 g) after standard treatments by conventional methods.CRP and tumor markers were measured in serum or heparin-plasma as a routine analysis. In addition, serum samples were collected before and after the IVCs for the cytokine kit tests.

RESULTS: According to our data positive response to treatment, which was demonstrated by measurements of C- reactive protein, was found in 75% of patients and progression of the inflammation in 25% of patients. IVC treatments on all aggressive stage cancer patients showed the poor response of treatment.There was correlation between tumor markers (PSA, CEA, CA27.29 and CA15-3) and changes in the levels of C-reactive protein.Our test of the effect of IVC on pro-inflammatory cytokines demonstrated that inflammation cytokines IL-1α, IL-2, IL-8, TNF-α, chemokine eotaxin and CRP were reduced significantly after treatments.

CONCLUSIONS: The high dose intravenous ascorbic acid therapy affects C-reactive protein levels and pro-inflammation cytokines in cancer patients. In our study, we found that modulation of inflammation by IVC correlated with decreases in tumor marker levels.In summary, our data support the hypothesis that high dose intravenous ascorbate treatments may reduce inflammation in cancer patients. Our results suggest that further investigations into the use of IVC to reduce inflammation in diseases where inflammation is relevant are warranted.

A portion of the table of diseases and CRP

Figure 1 CRP generally decreased with IV vitamin C

C-reactive protein levels after intravenous vitamin C treatments are compared to CRP levels before treatments.
Data points (squares) under the diagonal line demonstrate a positive effect of treatment introducing CRP levels.
Data points above the diagonal indicate CRP increases after treatment.

PMID: 22963460
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page

What is the optimum intake of vitamin C in humans?

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(9):815-29. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.649149.
Frei B, Birlouez-Aragon I, Lykkesfeldt J.
Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. balz.frei at oregonstate.edu

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin C has traditionally been based on the prevention of the vitamin C deficiency disease, scurvy. While higher intakes of vitamin C may exert additional health benefits, the limited Phase III randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin C supplementation have not found consistent benefit with respect to chronic disease prevention. To date, this has precluded upward adjustments of the current RDA. Here we argue that Phase III RCTs-designed principally to test the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical drugs-are ill suited to assess the health benefits of essential nutrients; and the currently available scientific evidence is sufficient to determine the optimum intake of vitamin C in humans.
This evidence establishes biological plausibility and mechanisms of action for vitamin C in the primary prevention of

  • coronary heart disease,
  • stroke, and
  • cancer;

and is buttressed by consistent data from prospective cohort studies based on blood analysis or dietary intake and well-designed Phase II RCTs.
These RCTs show that vitamin C supplementation

  • lowers hypertension,
  • endothelial dysfunction,
  • chronic inflammation, and
  • Helicobacter pylori infection,

which are independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers.
Furthermore, vitamin C acts as a biological antioxidant that can lower elevated levels of oxidative stress, which also may contribute to chronic disease prevention. Based on the combined evidence from human metabolic, pharmacokinetic, and observational studies and Phase II RCTs, we conclude that 200 mg per day is the optimum dietary intake of vitamin C for the majority of the adult population to maximize the vitamin's potential health benefits with the least risk of inadequacy or adverse health effects.

PMID: 22698272
No PDF available. _Note: Pauling Institute does not appear to believe in Orthomolecular Medicine as defined by Linus Pauling.

Effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May;95(5):1079-88. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.027995. Epub 2012 Apr 4.
Juraschek SP, Guallar E, Appel LJ, Miller ER 3rd.
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

BACKGROUND: In observational studies, increased vitamin C intake, vitamin C supplementation, and higher blood concentrations of vitamin C are associated with lower blood pressure (BP). However, evidence for blood pressure-lowering effects of vitamin C in clinical trials is inconsistent.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials that examined the effects of vitamin C supplementation on BP.

DESIGN: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Central databases from 1966 to 2011. Prespecified inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) use of a randomized controlled trial design; 2) trial reported effects on systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) or both; 3) trial used oral vitamin C and concurrent control groups; and 4) trial had a minimum duration of 2 wk. BP effects were pooled by random-effects models, with trials weighted by inverse variance.

RESULTS:Twenty-nine trials met eligibility criteria for the primary analysis. The median dose was 500 mg/d, the median duration was 8 wk, and trial sizes ranged from 10 to 120 participants. The pooled changes in SBP and DBP were -3.84 mm Hg (95% CI: -5.29, -2.38 mm Hg; P < 0.01) and -1.48 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.86, -0.10 mm Hg; P = 0.04), respectively.

In trials in hypertensive participants, corresponding reductions in SBP and DBP were -4.85 mm Hg (P < 0.01) and -1.67 mm Hg (P = 0.17).
After the inclusion of 9 trials with imputed BP effects, BP effects were attenuated but remained significant.

Conclusions: In short-term trials, vitamin C supplementation reduced SBP and DBP.
Long-term trials on the effects of vitamin C supplementation on BP and clinical events are needed.

{Note: this is very similar to the amount of reduction of hypertension due to having more vitamin D}

Inverse association of vitamin C with cataract in older people in India.

Ophthalmology. 2011 Oct;118(10):1958-1965.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.03.016. Epub 2011 Jun 25.
Ravindran RD, Vashist P, Gupta SK, Young IS, Maraini G, Camparini M, Jayanthi R, John N, Fitzpatrick KE, Chakravarthy U, Ravilla TD, Fletcher AE.
Aravind Eye Hospital Pondicherry, Aravind Eye Care, Pondicherry, India.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between vitamin C and cataract in the Indian setting.

DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional analytic study.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5638 people aged ≥60 years.

METHODS: Enumeration of randomly sampled villages in 2 areas of north and south India to identify people aged ≥60 years. Participants were interviewed for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors (tobacco, alcohol, household cooking fuel, work, and diet); attended a clinical examination, including lens photography; and provided a blood sample for antioxidant analysis. Plasma vitamin C was measured using an enzyme-based assay in plasma stabilized with metaphosphoric acid, and other antioxidants were measured by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cataract and type of cataract were graded from digital lens images using the Lens Opacity Classification System III (LOCS III), and cataract was classified from the grade in the worse eye of ≥4 for nuclear cataract, ≥3 for cortical cataract, and ≥2 for posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). Any cataract was defined as any unoperated or operated cataract.

RESULTS: Of 7518 enumerated people, 5638 (75%) provided data on vitamin C, antioxidants, and potential confounders. Vitamin C was inversely associated with cataract (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for highest to lowest quartile = 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.51-0.74; P=1.1×10(-6)). Inclusion of other antioxidants in the model (lutein, zeaxanthin, retinol, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol) made only a small attenuation to the result (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.82; P < 0.0001).
Similar results were seen with vitamin C by type of cataract: nuclear cataract (adjusted OR 0.66; CI, 0.54-0.80; P < 0.0001), cortical cataract (adjusted OR 0.70; CI, 0.54-0.90; P < 0.002), and PSC (adjusted OR 0.58; CI, 0.45-0.74; P < 0.00003). Lutein, zeaxanthin, and retinol were significantly inversely associated with cataract, but the associations were weaker and not consistently observed by type of cataract. Inverse associations were also observed for dietary vitamin C and cataract.

CONCLUSIONS: We found a strong association with vitamin C and cataract in a vitamin C-depleted population.

PMID: 21705085
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page

Low vitamin C ==> 1.8X more likely to have neck pain - June 2016

Serum vitamin C and spinal pain: a nationwide study.

See also web

Vitamin C may reduce severe cases of COVID-19 - no indication of prevention

Vitamin C used in China reduced hospital time with serious COVID-19 infections from 30 days to 26 days March 18

  • Treatment used vitamin C IV for 10 days. Perhaps an IV with just water would have had as much benefit

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
2167 Inverse Association of Vitamin C with Cataract in Older People in India.pdf PDF admin 03 Mar, 2013 21:10 102.19 Kb 1026
2165 CRP generally decreased.jpg admin 03 Mar, 2013 21:09 22.90 Kb 1652
2164 CRP reduction with vitamin C IV.jpg admin 03 Mar, 2013 21:09 75.87 Kb 2000
2163 High dose vitamin D - 2012.pdf PDF admin 03 Mar, 2013 21:08 752.35 Kb 597
2162 High dose vitamin D and cancer - 2009.pdf PDF admin 03 Mar, 2013 21:08 156.32 Kb 782
2161 Vitamin C - 2009.pdf PDF admin 03 Mar, 2013 21:07 350.90 Kb 619
2160 Vitamin C - March 2011.pdf PDF admin 03 Mar, 2013 21:07 1,017.21 Kb 777
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