- Supplements help a lot in the winter
- Eating fish helps some
- Spending time outdoors in the summer is great
- People who never use sunscreen have low levels of vitamin D (they do not go out?)
- Less time watching TV make for higher levels of vitamin D (also less time on video games)
FIGURE 2. Geometric mean (95% CI) 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D concentrations by dietary and lifestyle indicators, standardized by sex and season.;
(Dark gray bars) = winter and spring (December through May);
(Light gray bars) = summer and fall (June through November) in Great Britain.
*December through May: log likelihood ratio test, P 0.0001 for supplementation;
log likelihood ratio trend test, P 0.0001 for fish consumption and time spent watching television (TV) or using a personal computer (PC), P 0.002 for sun protection.
**June through November: log likelihood ratio test, P 0.0001 for supplementation; log likelihood ratio trend test, P 0.0001 for fish consumption, time spent outdoors, and time spent watching TV or using a PC, P 0.007 for sun protection.
All tests were adjusted for sex and month of measurement.
25(OH)D concentrations for time spent outdoors are presented for December through February, and those for all other indicators are presented for December through May.
***Number of unknown observations for December through May (first column) and for June through November (second column), respectively:
supplementation, 95 and 75; fish consumption, 99 and 70; margarine use, 144 and 105; time spent outdoors, 336 and 251;
sun protection, 319 and 244; and time spent using a PC or watching TV, 201 and 141.
Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):860-8.
Hyppönen E, Power C.
Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom. e.hypponen at ich.ucl.ac.uk
BACKGROUND: Increased awareness of the importance of vitamin D to health has led to concerns about the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in many parts of the world.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the white British population and to evaluate the influence of key dietary and lifestyle risk factors.
DESIGN: We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D in 7437 whites from the 1958 British birth cohort when they were 45 y old.
RESULTS: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was highest during the winter and spring, when 25(OH)D concentrations <25, <40, and <75 nmol/L were found in 15.5%, 46.6%, and 87.1% of participants, respectively; the proportions were 3.2%, 15.4%, and 60.9%, respectively, during the summer and fall. Men had higher 25(OH)D concentrations, on average, than did women during the summer and fall but not during the winter and spring (P = 0.006, likelihood ratio test for interaction). 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly higher in participants who used vitamin D supplements or oily fish than in those who did not (P < 0.0001 for both) but were not significantly higher in participants who consumed vitamin D-fortified margarine than in those who did not (P = 0.10). 25(OH)D concentrations <40 nmol/L were twice as likely in the obese as in the nonobese and in Scottish participants as in those from other parts of Great Britain (ie, England and Wales) (P < 0.0001 for both).
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the general population was alarmingly high during the winter and spring, which warrants action at a population level rather than at a risk group level. PMID: 17344510
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Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study. Lancet. 2010 Jul 17
Avoidance of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy in the United Kingdom: the case for a unified approach in National policy. Br J Nutr. 2010 Aug
Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Western populations is high; pregnant women are identified as a high-risk group, especially if dark skinned.
Consequences of severe clinical vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy can be life threatening to the newborn, while lesser degrees of hypovitaminosis D may have important long-term implications for offspring health.
Past experiences with routine provision of 10 microg/d (400 IU/d) to all pregnant mothers suggest that this dose is sufficient to prevent overt neonatal complications of vitamin D deficiency. Recent data suggest that supplementation with dosages above 10 microg/d may be required for optimal health in the mother and child; however, further research is required for the assessment of the benefits and safety of supplementation with higher dosages. Lack of unified advice on vitamin D supplementation of pregnant mothers in the UK hinders the implementation of primary prevention strategies and is likely to leave some deficient mothers without supplementation. PMID: 20594390
- All items in category Europe
- Vitamin D in the UK = VitaminDAssociation
- Sunlight Robbery - Gilles Nov 2010 full text
- UK elderly need vitamin D – 86 percent less than 30 ng - Jan 2010
- UK summers are not long enough to re-stock vitamin D – Aug 2010
- UK workshop on diet, sunlight, and vitamin D status – June 2010
- Scotland and Vitamin D
- Scottish doctors ignoring vitamin D? VitaminDWiki Blog - Feb 2012
- Overview Deficiency of vitamin D
- UK survey of vitamin D knowledge of midwives - 2011