Food Funct. 2012 May 9.
Haham M, Ish-Shalom S, Nodelman M, Duek I, Segal E, Kustanovich M, Livney YD.
Biotechnology and Food Engineering Department, The Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000, Israel. livney at technion.ac.il.
We have previously introduced the potential of casein micelles (CM) as natural nanovehicles for hydrophobic nutraceuticals, e.g. vitamin D (VD) (E. Semo, E. Kesselman, D. Danino and Y. D. Livney, Food Hydrocolloids, 2007, 21, 936-942). The aims of the current study were to improve performance by adding an ultra-high-pressure homogenization step, and to evaluate the protection conferred by re-assembled CM (rCM) against VD thermal and oxidative degradation, and the bioavailability of VD(3) in rCM, by a clinical trial. Dynamic-light-scattering showed that VD(3)-rCM had a diameter of 91 ± 8 nm (average ± standard error). When VD(3) was encapsulated in rCM and subjected to thermal treatment (80 °C, 1 min), no significant loss was observed (P > 0.05), compared to 13 and 14% loss of VD(3) emulsified with Tween-80 (a synthetic emulsifier typically used for VD solubilization) and of unencapsulated VD(3) respectively (P < 0.05). VD(3) in rCM was also more stable during 28 d cold storage (?40% loss) compared to Tween-80 emulsified (?50% loss) or to un-encapsulated (?70% loss) VD(3). Ultra-high-pressure homogenization of VD(3)-rCM (?155 MPa) significantly enhanced vitamin stability, resulting in only ?10% loss after 28 d of storage.
Bioavailability of a single-dose of 50?000 international-units (IU) VD(3) encapsulated in rCM, in 1% fat milk, investigated in a randomized double blinded placebo controlled clinical study with 87 human volunteers, was at least as high as that using an aqueous Tween-80-emulsified VD(3) supplement. We conclude that ultra-high-pressure homogenization treated rCM protect VD(3) against heat- and storage-induced degradation, and VD(3) encapsulated in rCM is highly bioavailable.
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