Prog Lipid Res. 2011 Oct;50(4):303-12. Epub 2011 May 27.
Jorde R, Grimnes G.
Endocrinology Research Group, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, and Medical Clinic, University Hospital of North Norway, 9038 Tromsø, Norway; University of Queensland at Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Considering that the vitamin D receptor as well as the 1-?-hydroxylase enzyme that converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) to its active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D have been found in tissues throughout the body, it is likely that vitamin D is important for more than the calcium balance. Accordingly, low serum levels of 25(OH)D have been associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity. Low serum levels of 25(OH)D have also been associated with an unfavourable lipid profile, which could possible explain the relation with cardiovascular disease and mortality. However, the relation between vitamin D and lipids have so far received little attention and is therefore the main focus of the present review.
A PubMed search identified
22 cross-sectional studies where serum levels of 25(OH)D and lipids were related and that included a minimum of 500 subjects, and
10 placebo-controlled double-blind intervention studies with vitamin D where more than 50 subjects were included.
In all the cross-sectional studies serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) resulting in a favourable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (or total cholesterol) to HDL-C ratio.
There was also a uniform agreement between studies on a negative relation between serum 25(OH)D and triglycerides (TG).
On the other hand, the intervention studies gave divergent results, with some showing a positive and some a negative effect of vitamin D supplementation.
However, none of the intervention studies were specifically designed for evaluating the relation between vitamin D and lipids, none had hyperlipemia as an inclusion criterion, and none were sufficiently powered.
In only one study was a significant effect seen with an 8% (0.28mmol/L) increase in serum LDL-C and a 16% (0.22mmol/L) decrease in serum TG in those given vitamin D as compared to the placebo group.
Accordingly, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipids is at present uncertain.
Considering the numerous other promising vitamins and minerals that when properly tested have been disappointing, one should wait for the results of forthcoming vitamin D intervention studies before drawing conclusions on potential beneficial effects of vitamin D.
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- All items in Cholesterol and vitamin D category 19 items as of Oct 2011
- Google search VitaminDWiki for HDL OR LDL OR lipids 256 hits as of Oct 2011
- Hypertension and vitamin D many articles
- Vitamin D increases HDL several items
- All items in Cholesterol and vitamin D
- Statins and vitamin D
- Vitamin D bioavailability is associated with cholesterol – Jan 2011
- Eating less cholesterol is harmless other than it causes of vitamin D deficiency – June 2011
- "The great cholesterol myth; unfortunate consequences of Brown and Goldstein's mistake."
- Cholesterol is needed to produce both Vitamin D and Cortisol
- Hypothesis: High Cortisol reduces Cholesterol available to produce vitamin D
- Heart Disease and Cholesterol Myth Health Skeptic approx 2010 - extensive set of blog posts, lots of links, videos, books,
- Cholesterol and Longevity Mar 2011
- Each 10-mg/dl increment in HDL cholesterol was associated with a 14% (decrease) in risk of mortality before 85 years of age.