Vitamin D Serum Levels in Subjects Tested for SARS-CoV-2: What Are the Differences among Acute, Healed, and Negative COVID-19 Patients? A Multicenter Real-Practice Study
Nutrients. 2021 Nov 3;13(11):3932. doi: 10.3390/nu13113932.
Luca Gallelli 1, Gaia Chiara Mannino 2, Filippo Luciani 3, Alessandro de Sire 4, Elettra Mancuso 2, Pietro Gangemi 5, Lucio Cosco 6, Giuseppe Monea 2, Carolina Averta 2, Pasquale Minchella 7, Manuela Colosimo 7, Lucia Muraca 8, Federico Longhini 9, Antonio Ammendolia 4, Francesco Andreozzi 2, Giovambattista De Sarro 1, G Amp P Working Group, Erika Cione 10
Vitamin D might play a role in counteracting COVID-19, albeit strong evidence is still lacking in the literature. The present multicenter real-practice study aimed to evaluate the differences of 25(OH)D3 serum levels in adults tested for SARS-CoV-2 (acute COVID-19 patients, subjects healed from COVID-19, and non-infected ones) recruited over a 6-month period (March-September 2021). In a sample of 117 subjects, a statistically significant difference was found, with acute COVID-19 patients demonstrating the lowest levels of serum 25(OH)D3 (9.63 ± 8.70 ng/mL), significantly lower than values reported by no-COVID-19 patients (15.96 ± 5.99 ng/mL, p = 0.0091) and healed COVID-19 patients (11.52 ± 4.90 ng/mL, p > 0.05). Male gender across the three groups displayed unfluctuating 25(OH)D3 levels, hinting at an inability to ensure adequate levels of the active vitamin D3 form (1α,25(OH)2D3). As a secondary endpoint, we assessed the correlation between serum 25(OH)D3 levels and pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with extremely low serum 25(OH)D3 levels (<1 ng/mL) and in a subset supplemented with 1α,25(OH)2D3. Although patients with severe hypovitaminosis-D showed no significant increase in IL-6 levels, acute COVID-19 patients manifested high circulating IL-6 at admission (females = 127.64 ± 22.24 pg/mL, males = 139.28 ± 48.95 ng/mL) which dropped drastically after the administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 (1.84 ± 0.77 pg/mL and 2.65 ± 0.92 ng/mL, respectively). Taken together, these findings suggest that an administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 might be helpful for treating male patients with an acute COVID-19 infection. Further studies on rapid correction of vitamin D deficiency with fast acting metabolites are warranted in COVID-19 patients.
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