Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Volume 14, Issue 2 , Pages 85-94, April 2011
Bone Mineral Density in Adults Disabled Through Acquired Neurological Conditions: A Review
Received 10 June 2010; received in revised form 12 December 2010; accepted 13 December 2010. published online 07 April 2011.
This article is a review of the changes in bone mineral density (BMD), which occur in a number of acquired neurological conditions resulting in disability.
For each of
- spinal cord injury,
- multiple sclerosis,
- Parkinson’s disease, and
- traumatic brain injury,
the following aspects are discussed, where information is available:
- prevalence of low BMD according to World Health Organization diagnostic categories and recommended diagnostic method,
- prevalence based on other diagnostic tools,
- comparison of BMD with a control population,
- rate of decline of BMD following onset of the neurological condition,
- factors influencing decline;
- mechanism of bone loss, and
- fracture rates.
The common risk factors of immobilization and vitamin D deficiency would appear to cross all disability groups, with the most rapid phase of bone loss occurring in the acute and subacute phases of each condition.