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Less vitamin D, bigger brain - humans and animals - Jan 2015

Intracranial volume inversely correlates with serum 25(OH)D level in healthy young women.

Nutr Neurosci. 2015 Jan;18(1):37-40. doi: 10.1179/1476830514Y.0000000109. Epub 2014 Feb 14.
Plózer E, Altbäcker A, Darnai G, Perlaki G, Orsi G, Nagy SA, Schwarcz A, Kőszegi T, Woth GL, Lucza T, Kovács N, Komoly S, Clemens Z, Janszky J.

Vitamin D is important in normal brain development. In animals low vitamin D level is associated with brain morphological alterations including enlargement of the brain. Whether a similar association exists in humans is unknown. Here we investigated the relationship between vitamin D and total intracranial volume as well as total volume of the cortical grey and cerebral white matter and that of the ventricles in young healthy women.

To assess volumes we applied semi-automatic user-independent MR volumetry. For the vitamin D measurements automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was used.

We found a significant negative correlation between vitamin D and total intracranial volume as well as total cortical grey and cerebral white matter volumes.

This association may reflect a trait-like relationship between vitamin D and brain size possibly determined in early development.

PMID: 24524629

Publisher wants $48 for the PDF (to find the strength of the association

Higher vitamin D ==> bigger brain Sept 2014

Vitamin D in relation to cognitive impairment, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and brain volumes.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Sep;69(9):1132-8. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glu022. Epub 2014 Feb 25.
Hooshmand B1, Lökk J2, Solomon A3, Mangialasche F4, Miralbell J5, Spulber G6, Annerbo S6, Andreasen N7, Winblad B8, Cedazo-Minguez A9, Wahlund LO6, Kivipelto M10.

Low vitamin D status is associated with poorer cognitive function in older adults, but little is known about the potential impact on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and brain volumes. The objective of this study was to examine the relations between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cognitive impairment, CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and structural brain tissue volumes.

A total of 75 patients (29 with subjective cognitive impairment, 28 with mild cognitive impairment, 18 with AD) referred to the Memory Clinic at Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden were recruited. Plasma 25(OH)D, CSF levels of amyloid β (Aβ(1-42)), total-tau, and phosphorylated tau, and brain tissue volumes have been measured.

After adjustment for several potential confounders, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cognitive impairment were as follows: 0.969 (0.948-0.990) per increase of 1 nmol/L of 25(OH)D and 4.19 (1.30-13.52) for 24(OH)D values less than 50 nmol/L compared with values greater than or equal to 50 nmol/L. Adjusting for CSF Aβ(1-42) attenuated the 25(OH)D-cognition link. In a multiple linear regression analysis, higher 25(OH)D levels were related to higher concentrations of CSF Aβ(1-42) and greater brain volumes (eg, white matter, structures belonging to medial temporal lobe). The associations between 25(OH)D and tau variables were not significant.

This study suggests that vitamin D may be associated with cognitive status, CSF Aβ(1-42) levels, and brain tissue volumes.

PMID: 24568931

Comment by VitaminDWiki
No apparent agreement on association
Wonder what the mechanism is