Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2012 Sep 18.
Departments of Medicine and Dermatology, San Francisco VA Medical Center and University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. daniel.bikle at ucsf.edu.
Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common type of cancer, occurring at a rate of over 1 million per year in the United States. Although their metastatic potential is generally low, they can and do metastasize, especially in the immune compromised host, and their surgical treatment is often quite disfiguring.
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as occurs with sunlight exposure is generally regarded as causal for these malignancies, but UVR is also required for vitamin D synthesis in the skin.
Based on our own data and that reported in the literature, we hypothesize that the vitamin D produced in the skin serves to suppress UVR epidermal tumor formation.
In this review we will first discuss the evidence supporting the conclusion that the vitamin D receptor (VDR), with or without its ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, limits the propensity for cancer formation following UVR.
We will then explore three potential mechanisms for this protection:
- inhibition of proliferation and stimulation of differentiation,
- immune regulation, and
- stimulation of DNA damage repair (DDR).
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