The relationship of vitamin D with non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with metabolic syndrome
Stefania Makariou 1,2, Evangelos Liberopoulos 2, Matilda Florentin 2, Konstantinos Lagos 2, Irene Gazi 2, Anna Challa 1, Moses Elisaf 2
department of Child Health, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Greece Corresponding author:
2Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Greece Prof. Moses Elisaf MD, PhD
Department of Internal Medicine Submitted: 20 November 2011 Medical School
Accepted: 11 May 2012 University of Ioannina, Panepistimiou Avenue
Arch Med Sci 2012; 8, 3: 437-443 451 10 Ioannina, Greece
DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2012.29398 Phone: +30-2651-0-97509
Copyright © 2012 Termedia & Banach Fax: +30-2651-0-97016
E-mail: egepi at cc.uoi.gr
Introduction: Several studies implicate an inverse relationship between 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)Vit D) serum levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We sought to investigate a possible relationship between 25(OH)Vit D and emerging risk factors associated with MetS, such as small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) concentration, lipoprotein-associated phos-pholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels.
Material and methods: We studied 110 consecutive otherwise healthy individuals. Of these, 52 were diagnosed with MetS and 58 who did not meet the MetS criteria served as controls. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclass analysis was performed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Lp-PLA2 activity was determined in total plasma by the trichloroacetic acid precipitation procedure. Serum 25(OH)Vit D was determined quantitatively by an enzyme immunoassay method.
Results: Metabolic syndrome subjects had significantly lower 25(OH)Vit D levels (11.8 [0.6-48.3] ng/ml; 29.5 [1.5-120.75] nmol/l) compared with controls (17.2 [4.8-62.4] ng/ml; 43 [12-156] nmol/l, p = 0.027). Univariate regression analysis showed that 25(OH)Vit D concentration was inversely related to triglycerides (r = -0.416, p = 0.003) and sdLDL-C (r = -0.305, p = 0.004). There was no association of 25(OH)Vit D with waist circumference, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting glucose, Lp-PLA2 and hsCRP In multi-variate regression analysis the relationship between 25(OH)Vit D and sdLDL-C became insignificant when triglycerides were included in the model.
Conclusions: Subjects with MetS exhibit lower 25(OH)Vit D serum levels compared with non-MetS individuals. Low 25(OH)Vit D is associated with higher sdLDL-C levels possibly through elevated triglycerides. No association between 25(OH)Vit D and Lp-PLA2 or hsCRP was found.
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MS 13 ng, non-MS 17 ng
Vitamin D level strongly associated with triglycerides, but not much else
Wonder what the results would have been if the non-MS had 30, 40, or even 50 nanograms of vitamin D