Low vitamin D status is associated with more depressive symptoms in Dutch older adults.
Eur J Nutr. 2015 Jul 4. [Epub ahead of print]
Brouwer-Brolsma EM1, Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, van Wijngaarden JP, van der Zwaluw NL, Sohl E, In't Veld PH, van Dijk SC, Swart KM, Enneman AW, Ham AC, van Schoor NM, van der Velde N, Uitterlinden AG, Lips P, Feskens EJ, de Groot LC.
1Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV, Wageningen, The Netherlands, elske.brouwer-brolsma at wur.nl.
|< 15ng||15-21 ng||21-29 ng||> 29 ng|
|Average vitamin D||10 ng||18 ng||25 ng||37 ng|
|Depression score (> 5 on questionnaire)||11%||5%||6%||6%|
|Depression risk adjusted for diabetes, etc|
relative to highest vitamin D level
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The existence of vitamin D receptors in the brain points to a possible role of vitamin D in brain function. We examined the association of vitamin D status and vitamin D-related genetic make-up with depressive symptoms amongst 2839 Dutch older adults aged ≥65 years.
25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured, and five 'vitamin D-related genes' were selected. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 15-point Geriatric Depression Scale. Results were expressed as the relative risk of the score of depressive symptoms by quartiles of 25(OH)D concentration or number of affected alleles, using the lowest quartile or minor allele group as reference.
A clear cross-sectional and prospective association between serum 25(OH)D and depressive symptom score was observed. Fully adjusted models indicated a 22 % (RR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.68-0.89), 21 % (RR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.68-0.90), and 18 % (RR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.71-0.95) lower score of depressive symptoms in people in the second, third, and fourth 25(OH)D quartiles, when compared to people in the first quartile (P for trend <0.0001). After 2 years of daily 15 µg vitamin D supplementation, similar associations were observed. 25(OH)D concentrations did not significantly interact with the selected genes.
Low serum 25(OH)D was associated with higher depressive symptom scores. No interactions between 25(OH)D concentrations and vitamin D genetic make-up were observed. In view of the probability of reverse causation, we propose that the association should be further examined in prospective studies as well as in randomized controlled trials.
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