Associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood: cross-sectional findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 May;97(5):1563-71. Epub 2012 Feb 16.
Williams DM, Fraser A, Sayers A, Fraser WD, Hingorani A, Deanfield J, Davey Smith G, Sattar N, Lawlor DA.
Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, United Kingdom. dylan.williams at bristol.ac.uk
CONTEXT: Studies in adults have reported associations of low circulating total 25-hydroxyvitamin D with increased cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Evidence of associations in children, however, is limited, and it is unknown whether associations with risk factors differ for each 25-hydroxyvitamin D analog [25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) (25[[OH]D(2)) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) (25[OH]D(3))].
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare associations of 25(OH)D(2) and 25(OH)D(3) with cardiovascular risk factors in children.
DESIGN/SETTING: The design of the study was a cross-sectional study of 4274 children (mean age 9.9 yr) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
MAIN OUTCOMES: The main outcomes included blood pressure, lipids [triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], apolipoproteins (Apo-A1 and Apo-B), adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, and IL-6.
RESULTS: In confounder-adjusted models, 25(OH)D(2) was inversely associated with
- Apo-A1 (change per doubling of exposure: -0.74 mg/dl; 95% confidence interval -0.14, -0.04) and
- triglycerides (relative percentage change per doubling of exposure: -1.64%; -3.27, 0.01) and
- positively associated with C-reactive protein (8.42%; 3.40, 13.58) and IL-6 (5.75%; 1.83, 9.25). 25(OH)D(3) was
- positively associated with HDL-C (0.04 mmol/liter; 0.02, 0.06),
- Apo-A1 (1.96 mg/dl; 0.65, 3.24), and
- adiponectin (0.47 ?g/ml; 0.15, 0.79).
There was statistical evidence that associations of 25(OH)D(2) and 25(OH)D(3) with HDL-C, Apo-A1, and IL-6 differed from each other (all P values for differences ?0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Higher circulating 25(OH)D(3) was associated with cardioprotective levels of HDL-C, Apo-A1, and adiponectin in children. Associations of 25(OH)D(2) with cardiovascular risk factors were in mixed directions. It is necessary to see whether these associations are replicated in large prospective studies.
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